Class War Casualties:  A Comprehensive, Chronological Account Of 4162 Killed And 7625 Wounded In America’s Class War -- www.ClassWarCasualties.Org,


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The new frontline in America’s ongoing class war is jury duty, which you can read all about right here.


This is a work in progress.  I hope eventually to support all of the incidents cited in this document, most of which I found on various websites, with reliable sources.  Please email me at with additions or corrections or reliable sources.  Especially, please help me to fill in the holes on the numbers of killed or wounded, because the whole purpose of this document is to remember their sacrifice, regardless of which side they were on, in this bloody, distinctly American war.



This is a part of American history of which I believe most of my fellow Americans to be unaware.  This document aims to help Americans become aware of the horrible, terrible things that fellow Americans have done to each other—spitting on, slapping, spanking, whipping, punching, kicking, clubbing, trampling, scalding, spraying with acid, branding, tar-and-feathering, cropping ears, stabbing, slitting, impaling, hacking, scalping, castrating, bobbitizing, cutting off ears, dismembering, decapitating, shooting, bombing, cannonading, gassing, poisoning, dragging, suspending, hanging, gibbeting alive, burning alive, electrocuting, breaking on wheel, and even crucifying—and the hateful, sometimes cold-blooded and sometimes and hot-blooded manner in which these acts were committed, and the huge number of people who suffered from these acts, all in the name of economic class in our country.


I feel the need to impart this knowledge to my fellow Americans because of the dearth of this knowledge in both our schools and our general culture.  My own path to this knowledge came by way of John Sayles’ movie “Matewan,” about a strike in West Virginia that ended in a gunfight in which ten people died.  I thought to myself, “Is this really true?  How come I never heard about this before?  Isn’t fellow Americans shooting each other something I should have learned about before now?”  When I sought to establish the truth of this incident, I found out that it was just the tip of the iceberg, and that in fact the Matewan Massacre, as it was called, led directly to a much bloodier affair in the Battle of Blair Mountain, and that even this was just one bloody incident in a whole national history of bloody incidents, of which I knew practically nothing.


This document catalogs 474 incidents in American history that fall into one of eight categories:  1) workers or worker sympathizers versus the employers of workers, 2) workers versus other workers competing for jobs, 3) slaves or slave sympathizers versus the owners of slaves, 4) indentured servants or their sympathizers versus the owners of indentured servants, 5) tenants versus landlords, 6) protests of unpaid soldiers, 7) protests against government imposing financial requirements for obtaining legal rights such as holding office or avoiding the draft, and 8) environmentalists interfering with corporate profitability.  Only those incidents are included in which people were killed or wounded, or incidents for which we have no record of people being killed or wounded, but the nature of the violence at the incident implies that there must have been some such casualties.  Industrial accidents are not included, for although many more workers died in such accidents than in the types of class battles cataloged here, those deaths were rarely the result of management deliberately wanting to kill off its own workforce.


Incidents in this catalog are further restricted only to those in which individuals or small groups acted alone.  Many of our large wars could also be construed as examples of class warfare.  For example, the Revolutionary War could be monarchy versus the people, the Civil War could be slavers versus slave sympathizers, and our twentieth century wars in Indochina could be communism versus capitalism.  But in large wars such as these, many individuals fight without understanding the underlying economic issues involved, rather, they are merely soldiers following their immediate orders.  In the smaller class battles cataloged here, each individual on either side knew exactly what he or she was fighting for.


When I have found two or more different figures for the number of killed or wounded in any of these incidents, I have usually used the higher (or highest) number in calculating totals, except in cases where there is too large a gap between the high and low numbers, as in the case of the New York Draft Riots, which author Herbert Asbury pegged at 2000 dead, but historian James M. McPherson pegged at 120, and the Thibodaux Massacre, which some claim to have killed 300, but most claim around 35, and the Colorado Coalfield War, in which the Rockerfeller Company said 199 died but the Colorado state government said 69.  The number of killed given in the Black Seminole Slave Rebellion may likewise be too high, but it is our one and only estimate, pertaining as it does to a quite recent discovery.  The high death rate in industrial accidents—during WWI, an American soldier stood a better chance of survival than an American miner—is another reason, besides the lack of deliberate intent in those accidents, as mentioned above, why accidental deaths are not included in this discussion.  I do not want to use a number too high for any one incident, because that would draw too much attention to just one incident, and while I do want to emphasize the magnitude of the violence at each of these incidents, I also want to emphasize the large number of violent incidents.  Nevertheless, these total numbers are still weak, because sometimes the number of killed, and much more often the number of wounded, is not recorded at all—and sometimes those unknown numbers must have been very high, such as the number of killed in the 1807 mass suicide of "two shiploads" of slaves at Charleston—and also because inevitably some class-related violent acts must have been missed altogether by their contemporary recorders of history.  The significance of the total numbers can be realized by comparing them with the totals for the March 2003 to December 2011 Iraq War:  4409 Americans killed, 31,928 Americans wounded.


These disputes were not, for the most part, "capitalist" owners versus "socialist" or "communist" workers, although in later years those adjectives were often applied by the owners, rather, most of these disputes were workers fighting for the right to be included in the capitalist system—they wanted to believe the capitalist mantra that by dint of their hard work they could lift themselves up out of poverty, but the companies they worked for set up barriers to prevent that from happening.  In fact, many companies, especially mining companies, were actually trying to impose on the workers a socialist type of system by having them live in company housing and buy from a company store, and some even paid workers only in company script that could be used only at the company store, rather than in universally accepted American currency, thus keeping the workers as prisoners in the company housing, making them slaves more than independent workers really, unable to seek employment elsewhere.  During the Bunker Hill Mine Bombing and prison camp, workers actually had to ask the local sheriff for permission to look for a different job, and during the Bisbee Deportation, every citizen had to ask the local sheriff for permission just to enter the town.


People argue about the exact causes of these types of violence and their remission.  Let us say here only that the two most violent categories of class-war violence in our country, slaves against masters and workers against company owners, were both ended by recognition of the rights of the exploited class by the highest level of American government, the presidency, and President Lincoln’s abolition of slavery ushered in the period of great economic expansion in our country known as “The Gilded Age” (although, the oppression of workers by the nouveau riche of this period was exactly what led to the next wave of class violence), and President Roosevelt’s recognition and enforcement of workers’ rights preceded the greatest economic expansion in all of American history.  An egalitarian America is a prosperous America.  It took our country’s highest office to enforce among the American people the social conscience needed to promote this kind of egalitarianism.  If our American forebears would have held to the social conscience depicted in our country’s original national pledge—not the pledge to the flag, which was given only as recently as 1942, but the pledge in our 1776 Declaration Of Independence, which reads, "we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor"—then perhaps such intervention by the presidency would not have been necessary.


Note:  Most of these incidents I found on the web, usually in more than one place, and Wikipedia was a frequent resource, especially "List of worker deaths in United States labor disputes," which I acknowledge if it is the only source I have for an incident, and which was a great resource for finding out about little known incidents, but was not complete, since many labor incidents listed on my website were not found on this list or anywhere else on Wikipedia.  Plus I am combining slave rebellions and other categories along with pure labor struggles.  A few of these incidents I found in only one place on the web, which would diminish their reliability, but I would not use a resource that seemed unreliable.  Two other resources I frequently used are:  A People’s History Of The United States by Howard Zinn (Harper Collins, 2005), or American Negro Slave Revolts by Herbert Aptheker (Columbia University Press, 1970), which are acknowledged in the list of incidents where appropriate.  I also received direct help, specifically with regard to incidents in the state of Rhode Island, from Scott Molloy, Professor Of Labor And Industrial Relations at University Of Rhode Island, and Marcia Weeden, a former student of that university, both of whose contributions likewise are acknowledged where appropriate.  I further received a list from a member of the International Workers of the World (IWW) union General Executive Board, DJ Alperovitz, showing all the members of the IWW for whom they had records as having been killed.  DJ assures me that he (or she) had personally verified the deaths of all the people on the list, and was, in fact, still going through a list of names of people to be verified before they are added to the list.  In an interesting side note to the IWW list, DJ wrote me that, "Just as a note until last year no individual that was accountable for the murder of a member of my union was ever convicted.  Brigadier General Pedro Espinoza was sentenced to seven years in the killing of FW Frank Teruggi on February 4, 2015."  Finally, I must acknowledge that a few of these incidents, or details of these incidents, I heard about on television shows, but did not realize the significance of what I had heard until after the show was over and forgotten, so those sources remain unacknowledged.

Killed And Wounded By Incident:


  Killed      Wounded          Year           Incident

        1                                   1656           Death of Tony

        1                                   1656           Vindication of Reverend Gray

        4                                   1663           Glouster County Conspiracy

      43                                   1675           Bacon’s Rebellion

                           0                1686           Northern Neck Conspiracy

        0                 1                1687           Iron Collar Punishment

      11                 0                1708           Newton Rebellion

        2                 0                1710           Easter Day Conspiracy

        1                 0                1711           Death of Sebastian

      30                                   1712           New York Slave Revolt of 1712

        0                 1                1713           Boston Bread Riot

      14                                   1720           Carolina Rebellion

                                             1729           Virginia Slave Settlement Attacked

        4                                   1730           Norfolk Rebellion

        9                                   1730           Samba Conspiracy

        5                                   1732           New Orleans Conspiracy

        1                                   1734           Somerville Conspiracy

        1                                   1734           Burlington County Conspiracy

        1                 0                1734           Reward Urged

        1                 0                1734           Prince George's Rebellion Betrayed

                                             1738           Georgians Killed

        1                 3                1739           South Carolinians Killed or Wounded

      75                 0                1739           Stono Rebellion

      50                 0                1740           Charles Town Conspiracy

        2                 0                1741           Hackensack Arson

      35                                   1741           Conspiracy of 1741

        1                 0                1741           Charles Town Arson 01

        1                 0                1741           Charles Town Arson 02

        8                 0                1742           Execution of Seven Slaves

                                             1744           Notchee Native Americans Enlisted

        0                 2                1745           Attack on Newark Jail

        6                 0                1755           Maryland Slaves Hanged For Poisoning Masters

        2               12                1756           Execution of Unpaid Soldiers

                                             1759           Charleston Slave Revolt Crushed

                                             1761           Charleston Slaves Poison Masters

        1                                   1766           New York Tenant Riots

        1                 0                1766           Arsonist Slave Executed

                                             1766           Great Dutchess Tenant Uprising of 1766

        4                 7                1766           New York Tenant Riots continued

        1                 0                1766           Execution of New York Tenant Riots leader

        4                                   1767           Alexandria Slaves Poison Masters

        0                 5                1768           Regulators Breakup Court

        0                 5                1770           North Carolina Conspiracy Crushed

        1                                   1770           New York Seamen Fight

        0                 1                1770           Boston Ropemakers Fight

        5                 6                1770           Boston Massacre

      36             161                1771           Battle of Alamance

        7                 0                1771           Execution of Regulators

        1                                   1772           Slaves' Arson Kills Child

        6                 3                1774           St Andrew's Parish Rebellion

        6               19                1779           Fort Wilson Riot

        1                                   1781           Pennsylvania Line Mutiny

        2                 0                1781           Pompton Mutiny

        1                 0                1781           Bill Executed

                                             1782           Louisiana Suppression of Maroons and Negroes

        1                 0                1783           Craven County Slave Owner Compensated

                                             1786           Belle Island Swamp Fort Destroyed

        0                 1                1786           Arrest of Job Shattuck

        4               20                1787           Shays Rebellion

        2               30                1787           Shays Rebellion continued

        2                 0                1787           Execution of Shays Rebels

                                             1792           Conspiracy of Celeb

        3                 1                1792           Northampton Slaves Executed

        1                                   1792           Richmond Overseer Killed

        1                 0                1793           Suppression Of Warwick County Insurrection

        3                 0                1794           Albany Arson

      50                 0                1795           Pointe Coupée Conspiracy

      10                 1                1795           Swamp Marauders Killed

      10                 2                1797           Prince William County Search Resistance

        3                                   1797           Charleston Conspiracy

      12                                   1799           Southampton County Transportation Resistance

      35                 0                1800           Gabriel’s Rebellion

        1                 1                1800           Execution of Assaulters of Charleston Overseers

        2                 0                1801           Execution of Two Virginia Slaves in Petersburg

      15               24                1802           Conspiracies in Eleven North Carolina Counties

        2                 0                1802           Execution of Two Virginia Slaves in Brunswick

        2                 0                1802           Execution of Two Virginia Slaves in Halifax

        1                 0                1802           Execution of One Virginia Slave in Norfolk

        1                 0                1802           Execution of One Virginia Slave in Hanover County

        1                 0                1802           Execution of Two More Virginia Slaves in Halifax County For Conspiracy

        1                 0                1802           Execution of One Virginia Slave in Henrico County For Conspiracy

        2                 0                1803           Margaret Bradley Riots

                           1                1804           Natchitoches Conspiracy

        3                 5                1805           Chatham Manor Rebellion

        1                 0                1805           Execution of One Virginia Slave in Stafford County For Conspiracy

        7               14                1805           1805 North Carolina Poisoning

        1                 0                1805           Execution of One Maryland Slave in Cambridge For Conspiracy

                                             1807           Slave Mass Suicide at Charleston

    100                 1                1811           German Coast Uprising

        2                 1                1811           Cabarrus County Runaway Community Invaded

        1                                   1812           Lexington Arson

                                             1812           Kentucky Hair Plait Conspiracy

        1                 0                1812           Execution of Joseph Wood

        3                 0                1813           Execution of Three Slaves in Williamsburg For Conspiracy

        6                                   1815           Boxley’s Rebellion

        6                                   1815           Camden Conspiracy

                                             1816           Youngblood Conquest

        4                                   1816           Fort Gadsden Attack on U.S. Navy

    272                                   1816           Destruction of Fort Gadsden

                                             1817           St. Mary's Riot

        1                                   1817           Abaellino's Raiders

        2                 1                1819           Coot's Conspiracy

        3                 1                1819           Attack on Williamsburg Renegade Community

        3                 0                1820           Two Slaves Executed in Augusta

        1                 0                1820           Jamaican Slaves Rebel in Florida

        2                 0                1820           Harry Killed

        1                                   1820           Georgetown Murder

        0               12                1821           Friendly Fire in North Carolina

      35                 0                1822           Vesey’s Conspiracy

        3                 0                1822           Jacksonborough Hangings

        1                 0                1823           Death of William Walker

        1                 0                1823           Execution of Bob Ferebee

        3                 0                1823           Attack on Pineville Fugitive Slaves

        1                 0                1824           Death of Isam

        5                 0                1826           Stone Brothers Uprising

        5                 0                1826           Execution of Leaders of Stone Brothers Uprising

        2                 0                1826           Mutiny on the Decatur

        1                 0                1826           Execution of William Bowser

        2                 0                1827           Fugitive Slaves Killed in South Carolina

        0                 1                1827           Austin Woolfolk Assaults Benjamin Lundy

                           3                1827           Nest of Runaways on Alabama River Discovered

        2                 0                1829           1829 Louisiana Slave Uprising

        0                 1                1829           Deer Hunters' Encounter

        1                 1                1829           1829 Hanover County Slave Uprising

        8                 1                1829           1829 Fist-Fighting Slaves

                                             1829           Mutiny aboard Lafayette

        2                 0                1830           1830 New Orleans Conspiracy

                                             1830           1830 Plaquemines Conspiracy

                                             1830           Moses' Confessions

      60                 0                1830           Preempting Newbern Christmas Attack

    311                                   1831           Southhampton Insurrection

        0                                   1834           Anti-Abolitionist Riots of 1834

    398                                   1835-8        Black Seminole Slave Rebellion

      20             100                1835           Baltimore Bank Riot

        0                 1                1835           Attack on William Lloyd Garrison

                       100                1835           Brazos Rebellion

        2                 1                1837           Death of Elijah Parish Lovejoy

        2                                   1841           Creole Rebellion

        1                                   1842           Dorr Rebellion

        7                                   1842           1842 Slave Revolt in the Cherokee Nation

        1                 0                1845           New York Anti-Rent War

        0                 2                1845           New York Anti-Rent War continued

        1                 0                1847           Mutiny Against Robert Paine

      25             120                1849           Astor Place Riot

        1                 0                1850           Death of Seth Concklin

        2                                   1850           New York Tailor Strike of 1850

        2                                   1851           Portage Railroad Strike

        1                 1                1851           Christiana Resistance

        1                 0                1854           Murder of James Batchelder

        0                 1                1854           Butman Riot

        1                 0                1855           Arsonist Slave Executed

        1                 0                1855           Franklin Coleman shoots Charles Dow

        1                                   1855           Wakarusa War

        1                 1                1856           Sacking of Lawrence

        0                 1                1856           Preston Brooks Beats Charles Sumner

        5                 0                1856           Pottawatomie Massacre

        0                 3                1856           Slave Self-Mutilation at Richmond

      22               40                1856           Battle of Osawatomie

        0                 1                1856           Whipping of Davidson

                                             1857           Economic Riots of 1857

        1                 0                1857           Arsonist Slave Executed

        0                                   1857           1857 Tompkins Square Park Bread Riot

                                             1857           Economic Riots of 1857

                                             1858           Brawl in U.S. House of Representatives

      19               10                1859           John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry

        7                 0                1859-60      Execution of John Brown’s Party

        1                 0                1860           Death of John Fairfield

      17                 0                1862           Culpepper County Conspiracy

        0                 5                1862           Buffalo Riot of 1862

1862 Emancipation Proclamation Ends Violence By And Against Slaves & Sympathizers

    120           2000                1863           New York Draft Riots

        2                                   1863           Boston Draft Riots

        1                                   1864           Execution of William Walker

                                             1864           Burning of Yazoo City

                                             1864           Capture of Bob Richardson

        1                                   1864           Henry Berry Lowry’s First Murder

      13                 2                1865-72     Lowry War

        1                                   1865           Henry Berry Lowry’s Second Murder

        2                                   1865           Execution of Henry Berry Lowry’s Family

        4                                   1870           Mamaroneck Riot

        2                                   1870           Workingmen's Benevolent Association Union Coal Strike

        3                                   1874           Italian Strikebreakers Killed

                       200                1874           Tompkins Square Park Riot

        1                                   1875           Attack on Ancient Order of Hibernians

                                             1875           Attack on Striking Coalminers

        1                 2                1875           Attack on Striking Coalminers’ Meeting

        0                 1                1875           Attack on Hugh McGeehan

        1                                   1875           Assassination of Edward Coyle

        2                 2                1875           Attack on Molly Maguires

        6                 0                1875           Attacks by and on Molly Maguires

        4                 4                1876           Three Days of Attacks by and on Molly Maguires

        5                 1                1876           Five Assassinations by Molly Maguires

        5                 1                1877           Nativist Labor Union Kills Chinese Farmhands

      10                 0                1877           Execution of Molly Maguires

      10                 0                1877-9        Execution of Molly Maguires continued

        1                                   1877           Great Railroad Strike of 1877 at Martinsburg

      10               25                1877           Great Railroad Strike of 1877 at Cumberland

      49               29                1877           Great Railroad Strike of 1877 at Pittsburgh

      10               40                1877           Reading Railroad Massacre (Great Railroad of 1877 at Reading)

      20               40                1877           Great Railroad Strike of 1877 at Chicago

        2               12                1877           Shamokin Uprising

        1                                   1877           Turner Hall Raid

        0                                   1877           1877 Speeches At Tompkins Square Park

      30             113                1877           Battle of the Viaduct

      18                                   1877           Great Railroad Strike of 1877 at St Louis

        3                 0                1878           Union Attack on Coal Creek Replacement Workers

        1                 0                1880's         New York Tenant Riots continued

      28               15                1885           Rock Springs Massacre

        2                                   1885           Lemont Quarry Strike

        1                 2                1886           Great Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886 at Fort Worth

        1                 0                1886           Great Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886 at St Louis

        6                 0                1886           Great Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886 at East St Louis

        2                 0                1886           Great Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886 at Wyandotte

        4                                   1886           Haymarket Shooting

      12             259                1886           Haymarket Massacre

      15                                   1886           Bayview Massacre

                                             1886           New York Streetcar Conductors Strike

      20                                   1887           Pattersonville Massacre

      37             200                1887           Thibodaux Massacre

        5                 0                1887           Execution of Haymarket Five

                                             1888           Delhi Farmer's Uprising

      16                                   1891           Cotton Pickers Strike of 1891

        9                                   1891           Morewood Massacre

      18                                   1891           Lee County Cotton Strike

      18               31                1892           Homestead Strike

        6               17                1892           Frisco and Gem Mine Strikes

        0                 2                1892           Attempted Assassination of Henry Clay Frick

        0                 3                1892           Buffalo Switchmen's Strike

        0                 2                1894           Cripple Creek Miner’s Strike

                                             1894           Hoganites in Coxey’s March

      34               57                1894           Pullman Strike

        2                 2                1894           Cripple Creek Miner’s Strike continued

        0                                   1894           Cripple Creek Miner’s Strike at Cripple Creek and Telluride

        6                                   1895           1895 New Orleans Dockworkers Riot

        5                                   1896           Leadville Miner’s Strike

      25               37                1897           Lattimer Massacre

      12               46                1898           Battle of Virden

        7               28                1899           Pana Riot

        2                                   1899           Bunker Hill Mine Bombing

        3                                   1899-1900  Bunker Hill Mine Prison Camp

        1               20                1899           First Conflict in Illinois Coal Wars

        5                                   1894           Second Conflict in Illinois Coal Wars

      14             200                1900           St Louis Streetcar Strike

        4                                   1901           Smuggler-Union Mine Strike

        4             250                1901           San Francisco Waterfront Strike

        1                                   1901           Assassination of William McKinley

        1                                   1901           Execution of Leon Czolgosz

                           1                1902           Paterson Silk Strike

      14               22                1902           Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902

        6                                   1903           Battle of Stanaford

        1                                   1903           Idaho Springs Strike

        0                 1                1903           Martial Law in Teller County

        3                 7                1904           Vengeance for Explosion at Independence Depot

        1                                   1904           Attack on Victor Prospectors

        6                                   1904           Dunnville Massacre

        0                                   1904           Amalgamated Meat Cutters First Strike

      21             416                1905           1905 Chicago Teamsters Strike

        0                                   1905           Federman's Bakery Strike

        1                 0                1907           Death of Peter J. Cramer

        2               20                1907           San Francisco Streetcar Strike

                                             1908           Spokane Free Speech Fight

        2                                   1908           Battle at McFerrin Hotel

      26               50                1909           Pressed Steel Car Strike of 1909

        0                 1                1909           Uprising of 20,000

        5                                   1910           Tampa Lynchings of 1910

      16               30                1910-11      Westmoreland County Coal Strike of 1910–1911

        1                                   1910           Spokane Free Speech Fight continued

        1                                   1910           Spokane Free Speech Fight continued

      21             100                1910           Los Angeles Times Bombing and Fire

        0                 1                1910           Llewellyn Iron Works Bombing

      11                                   1911           Somerset Railroad Sniper Attacks

        1                                   1911           Spokane Free Speech Fight continued

        0                                   1911           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911

        1                 0                1911           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        1                                   1911           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        1                                   1911           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        1                                   1911           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        1                                   1911           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        1                                   1911           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        1                                   1911           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

      33                                   1912-1913          West Virginia Mine War of 1912-1913 (Not Covered Below)

        3                 2                1912           San Diego Free Speech Fight

        3                 2                1912           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        1                 0                1912           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        1                 1                1912           Death of Anna LoPizzo

        1                 0                1912           IWW Death of John Ramey

                                             1912           Lawrence “Bread and Roses” Textile Strike

      30                                   1912           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

        4               50                1912           Grabow Riot

        1                 0                1912           IWW Death of Phillip “Joe” Ferro

        1                 0                1912           IWW Death of Charles “Leather Britches” Smith

        1                 0                1912           IWW Death of Jonas Smolskas

        17               0                1913-14      Colorado Coal Field War (Not Covered Below)

        1                 0                1913           IWW Death of Gregory Popoff

        1                                   1913           Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Strike

      16                                   1913           Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Strike at Mucklow

        1                                   1913           Paterson Silk Strike of 1913

        1                                   1913           Draper Company Strike

        1                                   1913           Unidentified IWW Death at Wilson Creek

        1                                   1913           IWW Death of Nicoletta Pantelopoulou

        2                 2                1913           United Fruit Company Strike

        1                                   1913           Paterson Silk Strike of 1913 continued

        4                                   1913           Wheatland Hop Riot

        2                 0                1913           Seeberville Murders

        1                 0                1913           IWW Death of James Donovan

        0                 2                1913           Parade at Calumet

        6                                   1913           Indianapolis Streetcar Strike of 1913

        3                 1                1913           Painesdale Murders

      73                                   1913           Italian Hall Disaster

        1                 0                1913           IWW Death of Rafael Adames

        0                 1                1913           Attack on Charles Moyer

        1                 0                1913           Illinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued

                                             1914           Trampling of Women at Trinidad

      19                                   1914           Ludlow Massacre

        3                                   1914           Assassination of Louis Tikas

      30                                   1914           Revenge for Assassination of Louis Tikas

      17                                   1914           Colorado Coalfield War (Not Already Covered)

        1                 1                1914           Butte Miner’s Hall Bombing

        4               24                1914           Lexington Avenue Bombing

        2                                   1914           Hartford Coal Mine Riot

        3                 0                1914           IWW Fight to Obtain Food in Montana

        5                                   1915           Liebig Fertilizer Strike

        2               20                1915           Roosevelt Strike Riot

        1                                   1915           IWW Death of BJ Bradley

        5                 5                1915           Bayonne Refinery Strike of 1915

        1                                   1915           Mellon Aluminum Mill Strike

        1                                   1915           IWW Death of “Doc” Roy Joseph Horton

        1                                   1915           Execution of Joe Hill

        3                                   1916           Youngstown Strike of 1916

                       100                1916           Poisoning of George Mundelein’s Guests

        2                                   1916           Aborted Carnegie Steel Parade

        3                                   1916           Mesabi Iron Range Strike of 1916

        1                                   1916           IWW Death of Frank Wells

      10               40                1916           Preparedness Day Bombing

        1                                   1916           IWW Death of Henry Burk

        4               34                1916           Bayonne Refinery Strike of 1916

                                             1916           Vigilante Gauntlet at Everett

        7               47                1916           Everett Massacre

        1                                   1917           IWW Death of “IWW John”

        1                                   1917           Death of Martinus Petkus

        1                                   1917           IWW Death of Louis Jalleani

    152                                   1917           East St. Louis Riots

        1                                   1917           Death of Mr. Shoemaker

        1                                   1917           IWW Death of Nick Luona

        2                 0                1917           Bisbee Deportation

        1                 0                1917           Assassination of Frank Little

        8                                   1917           Green Corn Rebellion

        1                                   1917           Unidentified IWW Death at Glencoe

        2                                   1917           IWW Death of Mr snd Mrs Thomas Simons

        1                                   1917           IWW Death of Verner Nelson

      10                                   1917           Attempted Assassination of August Giuliana

        1                 0                1917           IWW Death of Nick Luona

        0                                   1917           Centralia Red Cross Parade

        1                                   1917           IWW Death of Kaisa Kreeta Jackson

        4                 0                1919           American Wool Company Bombing

                                             1919           Boston Telephone Strike of 1919

        0                 1                1919           Attempted Assassination of Thomas Hardwick

        2               40                1919           May Day Riots of 1919

        1                 0                1919           Attempted Assassination of A. Mitchell Palmer

        0                 1                1919           Wounding of Jacob Isler

        1                 0                1919           Attempted Assassination of Charles Nott

        2                 0                1919           Assassination of Fannie Sellins

        9                                   1919           Boston Police Strike

      18             200                1919           Steel Strike of 1919

    242                                   1919           Elaine Massacre

        6                 5                1919           Centralia Massacre

        4                                   1919           Bogalusa Massacre

        1                                   1920           IWW Death of Hugh B. Haran

        2               16                1920           Anaconda Road Massacre

        1                 0                1920           Suicide or Murder of Andrea Salsedo

      10                 0                1920           Matewan Massacre

        4                                   1920           Philadelphia Longshoreman’s Strike

        2               33                1920           Denver Streetcar Strike

        5               25                1920           Denver Streetcar Strike continued

        0               22                1920           Denver Streetcar Strike continued

      38             400                1920           Wallstreet Bombing

      16                                   1920           1920 Alabama Coal Strike

        1                 0                1920           Death of Joe Bagley

        3                 0                1920           Deaths of Adrian Northcutt and Willie Baird

      11                 0                1921           Jasper County Murders

        2                 0                1921           Assassination of Sid Hatfield

        2                                   1921           Attack at Sharples

        4                                   1921           Attack by James E. Wilburn

    130                                   1921           Battle of Blair Mountain

        1                 0                1922           Amalgamated Meat Cutters Second Strike

        1                 0                1922           Amalgamated Meat Cutters Second Strike continued

        1                 0                1922           IWW Death of Paul Bernarcek (Bednartik)

      36                                   1922           Herrin Massacre

        1                 4                1922           Buffalo Streetcar Strike

        1                 1                1923           Harrison Railroad Riot

        1                 0                1922           Unidentified IWW Death at Feather River

        1                 0                1922           IWW Death of William J. McKay

        0                 2                1923           Liberty Hill Strike

      20                                   1924           Hanapepe Massacre

        0                                   1926           1926 Passaic Textile Strike

        2                 0                1927           Execution of Sacco and Vanzetti

        6                11               1927           Columbine Mine Massacre

        2                                   1927           Columbine Mine Strike at Walsenburg

        1                 4                1929           Loray Mill Strike

        1                 0                1929           Death of Ella Mae Wiggins

        6                17               1929           Marion Textile Strike

        1                 3                1923           H.C. Aberle Mill Strike

        1                 2                1923           Mammoth Mills Strike

        4                                   1931           Battle of Evarts

        0                 1                1931           Attack on Clara Holden

        0                                   1931           Iowa Cow War

        5               24                1932           Ford Hunger March Massacre

        4             200                1932           Eviction of Bonus Army

        0                 2                1932           Attempted Assassination of Webster Thayer

        0                                   1933           1933 Wisconsin Milk Strike at Appleton

        1                 1                1933           1933 Wisconsin Milk Strike in Racine County

        1                 0                1933           1933 Wisconsin Milk Strike between Saukville and Grafton

        1               20                1933           Spang-Chalfant Seamless Tube Mill Strike

        0                 1                1933           Pixley Cotton Strike at Woodville

        4               18                1933           Pixley Cotton Strike

        0                 1                1933           Pixley Cotton Strike at Arvin

        1                 0                1933           Shooting of Progressive Miner

        1                 0                1933           1933 Wisconsin Milk Strike at Burke

        1                 0                1934           KKK Abducts Citrus Worker Unionist

        2                                   1934           1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike at Wilmington

        2             200                1934           Battle of Toledo

        1                                   1934           1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike at Seattle

        2                                   1934           Bloody Thursday (1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike at San Francisco)

        2               47                1934           Kohler Strike of 1934

        4             200                1934           Minneapolis Teamsters Strike

        2                                   1934           Textile Workers Strike of 1934 at Trion

        1                 1                1934           Longshoremen Shoot Replacement Workers

        2                                   1934           Textile Workers Strike of 1934 at Augusta

        7               30                1934           Textile Workers Strike of 1934 at Honea Path

        2                 4                1934           Textile Workers Strike of 1934 at Saylesville

        3               15                1934           Textile Workers Strike of 1934 at Woonsocket

        2                                   1935           Monarch Mills Strike

        3                                   1935           Pacific Northwest Lumber Strike

        0                 6                1935           Dallas Public Spanking

        1                 0                1935           IWW Death of Arthur G. Ross

        1                                   1935           Death of Joseph A. Shoemaker

        3                 0                1936           3 IWW Deaths from Pierce, Idaho Ambush

        3                 2                1936           Good Friday Bombings

      25                                   1936           1936 International Seaman's Union Strike

        1                 0                1936           IWW Death of Blackie Hyman

        1                 1                1936           Galveston Bay Dock Wars, 1936-7

        1                 7                1936           Galveston Bay Dock Wars, 1936-7, continued

        1               50                1937           Stockton Cannery Strike of 1937

        0                                   1937           Battle of the Overpass

      10             140                1937           Memorial Day Massacre

      16             283                1937           Women's Day Massacre

        1                                   1937           Moltrup Steel Products Strike

        2                                   1937           Alcoa Aluminum Strike

        2                                   1937           Attack on Massillon Union Hall

        1                 0                1938           Death of Lloyd Rourke

        0               50                1938           Hilo Massacre

        1                                   1938           Death of Raymond Cooke

        3                                   1959           United Mine Workers Strike of 1959

1932-45 New Deal Legislation Ends Violence By And Against Workers & Sympathizers

        0                 1                1948           Attempted Assassination of Walter Reuther

        0                 1                1949           Attempted Assassination of Victor Reuther

        1                                   1968           Memphis Sanitation Strike

        6                 0                1970           Death of Walter Reuther

        1                 0                1973           Filming of “Harlan County, USA”

        1                 2                1974           Death of Wilma Schesler

        1                 0                1974           Death of Karen Silkwood

        1               35                1979           Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike

        5                 5                1979           Greensboro Massacre

        0                                   1986           1985 Hormel Strike

        0               44                1988           Tompkins Square Park Police Riot

        0                 2                1990           Attempted Assassination of Judi Bari

        1                 0                1998           Death of David Chain

        0                 1                2014           Rescue of Christopher Smith

        0                 2                2015           Attack On Fuerza Laboral

  4162           7625                                   Totals

1656, MarylandDeath of Tony:  Slave runs away and is recaptured twice, goes on sit-down strike, refusing to be slave, is whipped and burnt with hot lard until he dies, and his master, though charged with his murder, is vindicated by provincial court—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 133-4]


1656, VirginiaVindication of Reverend Gray:  Reverend whips and brands his slave who had run away, killing him, and is vindicated because "such accidents will happen every now and then"—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 134]


September 1, 1663, Cooks Quarter, VirginiaGlouster County Conspiracy:  Fellow servant leaks plans of nine European indentured servants (who throughout colonies are, just like African slaves who will later supplant them, malnourished, regularly whipped, in words of one female servant, “tied up and whipp'd to that Degree that you'd not serve an Animal,” forbidden to marry, and bought and sold, leading one French buccaneer to comment that slaves on Hispaniola are better treated than indentured servants in America), to free themselves by force of arms, and that servant is rewarded with his freedom and 5,000 pounds of tobacco, to encourage others likewise to betray their friends—4 killed, X wounded


Spring to Summer, 1676, VirginiaBacon’s Rebellion:  European indentured servants, African slaves, freed servants having received poor land, and frontiersman disgruntled at lack of protection from Native Americans unite against ruling class in Virginia, killing colonists and Native Americans, displacing rulers, and burning capitol of Jamestown to ground—43+ killed (at least 8 colonists, 12 English soldiers, 23 hanged rebels, but not including non-class-related killings of many, many Native Americans), X wounded


1687, Northern Neck Region , VirginiaNorthern Neck Conspiracy:  Slaves conspire to kill large number of European-Americans, but are discovered and executed, and because conspiracy was formed at mass funeral, all future mass funerals are prohibited —X killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 166]


1688, MarylandIron Collar Punishment:  Slave convicted of conspiracy is whipped and forced to wear strong iron collar for rest of his life—0 killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker, p 166-7]


Early 1708, Newton, Long Island , New YorkNewton Rebellion:  African and Native American slaves kill European-Americans, and subsequently are themselves caught and executed, men by hanging, and one woman by burning—11 killed 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 169]


June, 1710, Surry and James City Counties, VirginiaEaster Day Conspiracy:  Two African slaves are executed for having plotted an insurrection to have taken place the prior Easter Day—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 170-1]


Spring, 1711, South CarolinaDeath of Sebastian:  Indian hunter tracks down leader of insurgent slaves who were plundering homes—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 171]


April 6, 1712, New York City, New YorkNew York Slave Revolt of 1712:  African slave Cofi leads African slaves and Native Americans to burn buildings and kill European-Americans before they are caught, and then they are executed by hanging, burning, breaking on wheel, and suspending from chains, and laws are changed to prohibit freed African-Americans from owning land or gathering in groups of more than three, and to execute them for property damage, and slave owners are charged an exorbitant tax to free their slaves—30 killed, X wounded


May 19, 1713, Boston, MassachusettsBoston Bread Riot:  200 poor people looking for food break into ships and warehouses of wealthy grain exporter and shoot lieutenant governor when he tries to intervene—0 killed, 1+ wounded


June 24, 1720, South CarolinaCarolina Rebellion:  African slaves are burned or hanged or banished for their plot to “destroy all the white people,” though some escape to seek help from Creek Native Americans in St Augustine, Florida—14 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p174-5]


1729, Blue Ridge Mountains, VirginiaVirginia Slave Settlement Attacked:  Armed European-Americans attack settlement of runaway African slaves, killing an indeterminate number before returning rest to slavery—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 179]


1730, Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties, VirginiaNorfolk Rebellion:  200 African slaves, falsely believing Governor Alexander Spotswood has been sent by English king to free all slaves who are Christians, gather to choose leader for rebellion—4 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 79-80, 179-80]


1730, New Orleans, LouisianaSamba Conspiracy:  African slave woman is hanged, and eight African slave men are broken on wheel, after conspiracy to rebel under leader named Samba is uncovered by torture—9 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 181-2]


1732, New Orleans, LouisianaNew Orleans Conspiracy:  African slave woman is hanged, and four African slave men are broken on wheel, then all their heads are displayed on poles, after their conspiracy to rebel is uncovered by torture—5 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 182]


1734, Somerville, New JerseySomerville Conspiracy:  African slaves conspire to kill their owners and escape to nearby Native American villages, believing that English King had freed them but that their owners had kept this secret, but plot is uncovered before it happens, and slaves are punished with whipping, ears being cut off, and hanging—1 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 80]


1734, Burlington County, New JerseyBurlington County Conspiracy:  African slaves conspire to kill owners and rape their wives and escape to nearby French and Native American villages, believing that English King had freed them but that their owners had kept this secret, but plot is uncovered before it happens, and slaves are punished with whipping, ears being cut off, and hanging—1 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 80]


March, 1734, South CarolinaReward Urged:  In mass escape of African slaves to freedom offered by Spanish in Florida, reward is urged for European servant and African slaves who caught and killed leader of band of slave outlaws—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 183]


Spring, 1734, Prince George's County, MarylandPrince George's Rebellion Betrayed:  African slaves escape from jail and unite with other renegade slaves and together plot to capture town's magazine and establish their own government, but plot is betrayed by unaffiliated African slave—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 191-2]


November, 1738, GeorgiaGeorgians Killed:  In mass escape of African slaves to freedom offered by Spanish in Florida, slaves from South Carolina kill inhabitants of Georgia en route to Florida—X killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 186]


March, 1739, South CarolinaSouth Carolinians Killed or Wounded:  In mass escape of African slaves to freedom offered by Spanish in Florida, band of slaves allied with Spaniard and Irishman kill one European-American and wound three others en route to Florida—1 killed, 3 wounded  [Aptheker, p 187]


September 9, 1739, South CarolinaStono Rebellion:  African slave Cato leads other African slaves to kill warehouse guards, steal weapons, march with drums and flags and calls for liberty, burn buildings, and kill European-Americans, until they are defeated in battle, survivors being shot, hanged, and gibbeted alive, not reaching their destination of St. Augustine, Florida, where Spanish would grant them their freedom, Spanish believed perhaps even to have fomented rebellion, Spain being at war with England—75 killed (another source said 64), X wounded


June, 1740, Charles Town, South CarolinaCharles Town Conspiracy:  African slave named Peter, rewarded with clothes and £20 cash, betrays conspiracy among his fellow African slaves, who are hanged in batches of ten per day to discourage other would-be conspirators—50 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 189]


April, 1741, Hackensack, New JerseyHackensack Arson:  African slaves executed by burning for arson—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 194]


May 1 to July 29, 1741, New York City, New YorkConspiracy of 1741:  After forcing confessions to false accusation of setting fires, state of New York executes European-Americans, both male and female, including Spanish priest and indentured servant, and African slaves, some by hanging (by ropes or chains), and others by burning—35 killed (another source said 21), 0 wounded


July, 1741, Charles Town, South CarolinaCharles Town Arson 01:  Female African slave condemned to die for arson—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 190]


August, 1741, Charles Town, South CarolinaCharles Town Arson 02:  Male African slave burnt to death for arson—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 190]


1742, MarylandExecution of Seven Slaves:  State of Maryland executes seven slaves for murdering their master—8 killed, 0 wounded  [Zinn]


July 5, 1744, South CarolinaNotchee Native Americans Enlisted:  Governor asks local Native Americans to help destroy outpost of armed, runaway African slaves—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p. 195]


1745, Newark, New JerseyAttack on Newark Jail:  Crowd clubs guard and sheriff and then breaks down jail to free two men arrested for earlier having freed debtor jailed for nonpayment of rent—0 killed, 2+ wounded  [Zinn]


1755, MarylandMaryland Slaves Hanged For Poisoning Masters:  In 1755 alone, five slaves are hanged for attempting to poison four different masters, one of them actually succeeding in killing his master—6 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p. 143-4.  Maryland has detailed online records of slaves it hanged between 1726 and 1775, for anyone with patience enough to pore over them.]


1756, VirginiaExecution of Unpaid Soldiers:  Richest man in America, aristocrat George Washington, newly appointed general of the Virginia militia, who travels with private retinue that feeds and clothes him finely while his troops eat hardtack and wear rags, punishes 14 troops who desert in protest of unpaid wages, 12 with an average of 600 lashes each, and 2 by hanging on 40-foot high gallows, to serve as, in his words, “an example”—2 killed, 12 wounded


Summer, 1759, Charleston, South CarolinaCharleston Slave Revolt Crushed:  Officials crush African slaves' "serious attempt at revolt"—X killed, X wounded [Aptheker, p. 197]


1761, Charleston, South CarolinaCharleston Slaves Poison Masters:  African slaves poison their European-American masters—X killed, X wounded [Aptheker, p. 197]


1766, Hudson Valley, NewYorkNew York Tenant Riots:  New landlord tears down houses of poor tenants, killing some and imprisoning others, who later are released by other poor tenants tearing down jail—1+ killed, X wounded


1766, MarylandArsonist Slave Executed:  Maryland executes slave woman who had burned down master's home, tobacco house, and outhouses—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 145]


March , 1766, Dutchess County, New YorkGreat Dutchess Tenant Uprising of 1766:  Philipse Family tries to evict William Prendergast from their estate, but Prendergast foments tenant rebellion which leads to 1700 armed tenants closing court and breaking open jails in Poughkeepsie, and though Prendergast is sentenced to hang he is reprieved by governor—0 killed, X wounded


June 26, 1766, Hudson Valley, NewYorkNew York Tenant Riots continued:  Poor tenants rioting in protest of cruel landlord shootout with county sheriff and deputies—4 killed, 7+ wounded


August 19, 1766, Hudson Valley, NewYorkExecution of New York Tenant Riots Leader:  Leader of tenant riots convicted in court and sentenced to death—1 killed, 0 wounded


Late 1767, Alexandria, VirginiaAlexandria Slaves Poison Masters:  Several slave overseers die from poisoning and four African slaves are executed for those deaths, their heads then cut off and fixed to chimneys of courthouse—4+ killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 198-9]


1768, Hillsborough, North CarolinaRegulators Break Up Court:  Farmers impoverished by draught, called “Regulators,” who at one time send 700 of their number to forcibly break two of their leaders out of jail, protest against governmental treatment of debtors by destroying court building, beating two merchants and three lawyers, one lawyer so badly that he nearly loses an eye, and looting stores—0 killed, 5 wounded


1770, Beaufort, Pitt, & Craven Counties, North CarolinaNorth Carolina Conspiracy Crushed:  State of North Carolina whips and crops ears of five African slaves convicted of conspiring to foment large general rebellion—0 killed, 5 wounded  [Zinn, p 202-3]


January 22, 1770, New YorkNew York Seamen Fight:  Colonial seaman fight British soldiers for taking their jobs—1 killed, X wounded  [Zinn]


March 2, 1770, Boston, MassachusettsBoston Ropemakers Fight:  Colonial ropemakers, upset at British soldiers taking side jobs as ropemakers, beat one soldier, who brings back other soldiers for renewed fighting—0 killed, 1+ wounded


March 5, 1770, Boston, MassachusettsBoston Massacre:  Ropemakers fight of three days prior leads to renewed fighting and eventual British shooting of colonial ropemakers, sailors, and other unaffiliated but concerned citizens—5 killed, 6 wounded


May 16, 1771, Alamance County, North CarolinaBattle of Alamance:  Regulators shoot out with governor’s militia—18-36 killed, 85–161 wounded


May-June, 1771, Alamance County, North CarolinaExecution of Regulators:  Leaders of the Regulators are hanged—7 killed (another source said 6), 0 wounded


June, 1772, Savannah, GeorgiaSlaves' Arson Kills Child:  Grand jury reports that African Slaves set fire to European-American's house, killing child within—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 200]


November, 1774, St Andrew's Parish, GeorgiaSt Andrew's Parish Rebellion:  Male and female African slaves rise up in rebellion and kill four European-Americans and wound three others before being subdued, and at lest two rebels are burned alive as punishment—6 killed, 3 wounded  [Aptheker, p 201]


October 4, 1779, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaFort Wilson Riot:  James Wilson, signer of Declaration of Independence and opponent of Pennsylvania’s price controls and democratic constitution, is forced inside his home along with 35 colleagues by rioters emboldened by sanction from by President of Pennsylvania's Supreme Executive Council, until rescued by local military bands—6 killed, 19 (another source said 17) wounded


January 1, 1781, Morristown, New JerseyPennsylvania Line Mutiny:  Pennsylvania troops leave their post in New Jersey to march on federal and state congresses in Philadelphia to demand wages equal to troops in other states and receive a negotiated settlement, and a similar mutiny two years later (Pennsylvania mutiny of 1783), though bloodless, causes federal congress to flee Philadelphia permanently and create federal District of Columbia in which to meet—1 killed, X wounded


January 20, 1781, Pompton Camp, New JerseyPompton Mutiny:  New Jersey troops, mimicking Pennsylvania Line Mutiny, march on state congress at Trenton for redress of their wage grievances, but, being far less in number than their Pennsylvania counterparts, are captured and their leaders executed by forced firing squad of their own weeping companions—2 killed, 0 wounded


May, 1781, Prince William County, VirginiaBill Executed:  Slave named Bill is sentenced to death for "waging . . .  war against the Commonwealth"—1 killed, 0 wounded [Aptheker, p 207]


1782-4, Spanish Province Of LouisianaLouisiana Suppression Of Maroons And Negroes:  25 Maroons and Negroes led by St. Malo, probably escaped slaves, are caught and punished with hanging, branding, or hundreds of lashes—X killed, X wounded [Aptheker, p 207]


April 23, 1783, Craven County, North CarolinaCraven County Slave Owner Compensated:  State of North Carolina reimburses William Bryan £50 for African slave killed while suppressing other slaves—1 killed, 0 wounded [Aptheker, p 203]


October 11 and 13, 1786, Outside Savannah, GeorgiaBelle Isle Swamp Fort Destroyed:  In one of very few successful attacks on runaway maroons hiding in Great Dismal Swamp region of southeast U.S., area made popularly known by Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel, Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp, Georgia and South Carolina militias along with their Native American allies destroy a fort, casualties being variously described as "heavy" or "killing a handful of maroons"—X killed, X wounded  [mostly in Aptheker, p 209]


November 30, 1786, Boston, MassachusettsArrest of Job Shattuck:  Leader is wounded by sword during his arrest for shutting down debtors court with his force of Regulators, disaffected farmers organized into military force by disaffected ex-military personnel such as Luke Day and Daniel Shays, both of whom had gone into debt because they had not been paid as promised for their military service, even though Shays had been wounded in that service, and both of whom had been in debtors court because of that lack of payment, Day even spending time in debtors prison—0 killed, 1 wounded


January 25, 1787, Springfield, MassachusettsShays Rebellion:  Private army funded by rich merchants fires cannon into force of Regulators under Daniel Shays’ command attempting to seize armory—4 killed, 20 wounded


February 27, 1787, Sheffield, MassachusettsShays Rebellion continued:  Bands of regulators, after having raided shops and homes of merchants and professionals in Stockbridge, encounter local militia—2 killed, 30+ wounded


December 6, 1787, Massachusetts—Execution of Shays Rebels:  Although roughly 4000 Regulators sign confessions, and hundreds are indicted on various rebel-related crimes, and eighteen are even sentenced to death, only two are actually executed, by hanging—2 killed, 0 wounded


May 17, 1792, Petersburg, VirginiaConspiracy Of Celeb:  Letter describes huge stockpile of arms discovered in possession of African slaves led by slave Celeb, several of whom "it is expected will be hanged"—X killed, 0 wounded [Aptheker, p 211]


July 9, 1792, Northampton, VirginiaNorthampton Slaves Executed:  Three African slaves are executed of the six that had attacked European-American patrolman—3 killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker, p 213]


November 19, 1792, Richmond, VirginiaRichmond Overseer Killed:  Letter tells of armed European-American overseer of slaves killed by African slave—1 killed, 0 wounded [Aptheker, p 213]


November 25, 1793, Warwick County, VirginiaSuppression Of Warwick County Insurrection:  Militia commander requests arms to suppress African slave insurrection inspired by Haitian Revolution, though already suppressed somewhat by execution of one leader—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 214-5]


Early 1794, Albany, New YorkAlbany Arson:  One male and two female African slaves are executed for 1793 arson—3 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 215]


Spring 1795, Pointe Coupée Parish, LouisianaPointe Coupée Conspiracy:  Disagreement over when to begin attack foils African slave insurrection, and 25 rebels are killed while resisting arrest and equal number are hanged, their dead bodies left up to warn other slaves against such action—50 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 215-6]


June & July, 1795, Wilmington, North CarolinaSwamp Marauders Killed:  Runaway African slaves hiding in swamps stage nighttime attacks on European-American slave owners, till most are killed by hunting parties or captured and executed—10 killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker, p 217]


1797, Prince William County, VirginiaPrince William County Search Resistance:  African slaves resisting search by European-American patrol results in violence and death on both sides—10 killed, 2 wounded  [Aptheker, p 219]


November, 1797, Charleston, South CarolinaCharleston Conspiracy:  Slaves are banished or executed for conspiring to burn city—3 killed, 0 wounded [Aptheker, p 97]


Late 1799, Southampton County, VirginiaSouthampton County Transportation Resistance:  African slaves resisting transport from Virginia to Georgia kill European-American overseers, but are caught and executed—12 (another source said 6) killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 219]


August 30, 1800, Richmond, VirginiaGabriel’s Rebellion:  Slave Gabriel, whose owner, Mr. Prosser, according to letter written to Thomas Jefferson, "had behaved with great barbarity to his slaves," organizes rebellion, intending to spare Frenchmen, Quakers, and Methodists, all of whom are perceived to be advocates of freeing slaves (French because of their own recent national rebellion, Quakers because of their outspoken opposition to slavery, and Methodists because in 1797 20% of Methodists are of African decent), but rebellion is stopped by flood that washes out bridges—35 killed, 0 wounded


October 22, 1800, Charleston, South CarolinaExecution of Assaulters of Charleston Overseers:  Execution of slaves for assaulting their overseers eight weeks prior is reported in press, though this incident, like all similar incidents at that time, is downplayed by press, which does not even mention "slaves" or "Africans" as subject of article, so as not to incite other African slaves to violence—1+ killed, 1+ wounded [Aptheker, p 157-8]


January, 1801, Petersburg, VirginiaExecution of Two Virginia Slaves In Petersburg For Conspiracy:  State of Virginia executes two slaves from Nottoway County for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 228]


1802, North CarolinaConspiracies in Eleven North Carolina Counties:  Slave conspiracies in Camden, Bertie, Currituck, Martin, Halifax, Pasquotank, Hertford, Wake, Washington, Warren, and Charlotte counties in North Carolina result in scores arrested, fifteen executed, and dozens tortured—15 killed, 24+ wounded  [Aptheker, p 231-232]


February, 1802, Brunswick, VirginiaExecution of Two Virginia Slaves in Brunswick For Conspiracy:  State of Virginia executes two slaves for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 228]


April, 1802, Halifax, VirginiaExecution of Two Virginia Slaves in Halifax For Conspiracy:  State of Virginia executes two slaves for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 228]


April, 1802, Norfolk, VirginiaExecution of One Virginia Slave in Norfolk For Conspiracy:  State of Virginia executes one slave, and reprieves another for "weak-mindedness," instead banishing him, for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 228-9]


April, 1802, Hanover County, VirginiaExecution of One Virginia Slave in Hanover County For Conspiracy:  State of Virginia executes one slave and banishes another for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 229]


June 13 and  July 1, 1802, Halifax, VirginiaExecution of Two More Virginia Slaves in Halifax County For Conspiracy:  State of Virginia executes two slaves for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 230]


July, 1802, Henrico County, VirginiaExecution of One Virginia Slave in Henrico County For Conspiracy:  State of Virginia executes one slave for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 230]


February, 1803, York, PennsylvaniaMargaret Bradley Riots:  Two African slaves are hanged and five sentenced to twelve years hard labor for their part in riots that destroyed eleven buildings resulting from conviction of female slave in Philadelphia for attempting to poison two European-American women—2 killed, 0 wounded


October, 1804, Natchitoches, LouisianaNatchitoches Conspiracy:  Nine African slaves steal weapons and horses and reach Spanish territory in Florida, Spanish Royal Decree of 1789 granting both freedom and land to fugitive slaves, but one is wounded who implicates 30 others in conspiracy—X killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker]


January, 1805, Fredericksburg, VirginiaChatham Manor Rebellion:  Local vigilantes capture African slaves who overpowered and whipped their overseers—3 killed, 5 wounded


April, 1805, Stafford County, VirginiaExecution of One Virginia Slave in Stafford County For Conspiracy:  Two African slaves are convicted of "conspiracy and insurrection,":  One is banished, other is hanged—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 241]


April, 1805, Johnston, Sampson, and Wayne County, North Carolina1805 North Carolina Poisoning:  Many European-American masters are poisoned, two of whom die, and twenty African slaves are arrested for it, one woman burned alive, three or four others hanged, one banished, and rest are whipped or pilloried or ears nailed down then cut off—7 killed, 14 wounded  [Aptheker, p 241-2]


July, 1805, Cambridge, MarylandExecution of One Maryland Slave in Cambridge For Conspiracy:  Two men of African descent are arrested for "attempting to raise an insurrection":  Freeman gets seven years hard labor, slave is hanged—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 240-1]


1807, Charleston, South CarolinaSlave Mass Suicide at Charleston:  Two shiploads of slaves starve themselves to death— X killed (this could easily be hundreds of deaths for which I unfortunately could find no number), X wounded  [Aptheker, p 142-3]


January 8-10, 1811, Territory of OrleansGerman Coast Uprising:  U.S. Army, local militia, and local vigilantes kill, capture, and execute by firing squad uprising of 4-500 African slaves beginning from plantation of U.S. Army Major Andry, who is wounded and his son killed, and string up rebel's heads at regular intervals from New Orleans to Andry's plantation—100 (another source said 97, and another source said 83) killed, 1+ wounded


March, 1811, Cabarrus County, North CarolinaCabarrus County Runaway Community Invaded:  Armed European Americans invade community of runaway African slaves, killing two men, wounding one man, and capturing two women—2 killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker, p 251]


January, 1812, Lexington, KentuckyLexington Arson:  Of three African slaves convicted of arson, only one is executed—1 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 252]


After June 18, 1812, from Maysville to Henderson, KentuckyKentucky Hair Plait Conspiracy:  After outbreak of War of 1812, slaves over a three hundred mile range conspiring to get their freedom identify one another by wearing hair plait over their left eyes, but conspiracy is uncovered and they are whipped and their hair plaits cut off—0 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 252]


September 13, 1812, New Orleans, LouisianaExecution of Joseph Wood:  European-American is executed for conspiring to help African slaves rebel—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 254]


April 23, 1813, Williamsburg, VirginiaExecution of Three Slaves in Williamsburg for Conspiracy:  State of Virginia executes three slaves for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 255]


March 6, 1815, Spotsylvania, VirginiaBoxley’s Rebellion:  Slave leaks plans of former slave owner turned abolitionist to start slave rebellion, and though he is captured along with his men, he escapes from jail and continues his abolitionist work in different state—6 killed, X wounded


July 4, 1815, Camden, South CarolinaCamden Conspiracy:  State of South Carolina executes six slaves for conspiring to kill European-Americans of the master class and burn their homes, their leaders ironically also occupying high positions in local church—6 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 257-8]


1816, Ashepoo, South CarolinaYoungblood Conquest:  Governor of South Carolina notes that Major-General Youngblood "captured or destoryed" whole band of escaped slaves hiding in swamps—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 258-9]


July 17, 1816, Flint River, GeorgiaFort Gadsden (aka Fort Blount) Attack on U.S. Navy:  300 fugitive African slaves and 30 Seminole and Choctaw Native Americans in British fort left over from war of 1812 fire on U.S. naval vessel—4 killed, X wounded


July 26, 1816, Flint River, GeorgiaDestruction of Fort Gadsden (aka Fort Blount):  U.S. armed forces blow up fort occupied by fugitive African slaves and Native Americans, and execute their leaders, scalping one—272 killed, X wounded


April 7, 1817, St. Mary's County, MarylandSt. Mary's Riot:  200 African slaves attack European-Americans with sticks and rocks before being subdued by police—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 262]


November, 1817, Wake County, North CarolinaAbaellino's Raiders:  Renegade African slaves raid European-American establishments, and, though rewards are offered, they are apparently never caught—1+ killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 262]


Spring, 1819, Augusta, GeorgiaCoot's Conspiracy:  African slaves, with at least one European-American, conspire to attack city with fire but are defeated, and one conspirator is punished with 10 times 25 lashes, branded "R" on his cheek, and ears cut off—2+ killed, 1+ wounded  [Aptheker, p 263]


July, 1819, Williamsburg County, South CarolinaAttack on Williamsburg Renegade Community:  Band of European-Americans attacks community of renegade African slaves—3 killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker, p 263]


February 1, 1820, Augusta, GeorgiaTwo Slaves Executed in Augusta:  State of Georgia executes two African slaves for killing European-American, one by hanging, then decapitation, and then his head put on display—3 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 263]


March, 1820, FloridaJamaican Slaves Rebel in Florida:  Newly arrived slaves from Jamaica rebel but are quickly subdued by U.S. troops—1 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 266]


Spring, 1820, Gates County, North CarolinaHarry Killed:  After band of runaway African slaves kill European-American, their leader, named "Harry," is caught and killed—2 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 266-7]


Late 1820, Georgetown, South CarolinaGeorgetown Murder:  Band of outlaw runaway African slaves kills slaveholder—1 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 267]


August and September, 1821, Onslow, Carteret, and Bladen Counties, North CarolinaFriendly Fire in North Carolina:  Two companies of militia accidentally fire on each other—0 killed, 12 wounded  [Aptheker, p 267]


June to July 1822, Charleston, South CarolinaVesey’s Conspiracy:  African slaves, numbering into thousands—not including 6600 to 9000 more slaves outside of Charleston who cannot be alerted in time that date of attack has been advanced one month due to arrests of top leaders—armed with hundreds of pike heads, bayonets, and daggers, and believing that the Missouri Compromise proves that federal government has outlawed slavery but that their own masters simply refuse to follow new law, plan with their leader Denmark Vesey, free African-American ex-slave who is multilingual and quotes the Bible to support his rebellion, to burn Charleston, sixth largest city in U.S., and flee to Haiti, only country in world ever able to stage successful slave rebellion, but their plan is leaked by fellow slaves, resulting in rebels' capture and execution of leaders, and new draconian South Carolina laws, such as every free African-American over fifteen years old must have guardian in attendance, prohibition against teaching African slaves how to read or write, and imprisonment of any ship's crew member of African descent who leaves his vessel until ship's captain pays fine—37 (another source said 35) killed, 0 wounded


1822, Jacksonborough, South CarolinaJacksonborough Hangings:  State of South Carolina hangs 3 armed runaway African slaves, who had been captured, and were possibly associated with Vesey's Conspiracy, as were  twenty more maroons for whose capture state governor offers two hundred dollars following month—3 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 273]


May 12, 1823, Norfolk County, VirginiaDeath of William Walker:  Newspaper article describes band of fugitive slaves killing several European Americans, most recent of whom is named—1+ killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 276]


June 25, 1823, Norfolk County, VirginiaExecution of Bob Ferebee:  Reports of killing or capture of fugitive African slaves who had killed European-Americans including William Walker culminate in capture and execution of their leader—1+ killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 277]


October, 1823, Pineville, South CarolinaAttack on Pineville Fugitive Slaves:  Fugitive African slaves are attacked, killed—including one woman and one child—captured, or executed, and one has his decapitated head stuck on pole—3+ killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 276]


1824, Cape Fear, North CarolinaDeath of Isam:  Troublemaking outlaw African slave is whipped to death—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 267]


September, 1826, Bourbon County, KentuckyStone Brothers Uprising:  77 African slaves being transported by boat down Ohio river overcome and kill European-American slave traders—5 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 277-8]


November 29, 1826, Bourbon County, KentuckyExecution of Leaders of Stone Brothers Uprising:  After all 77 fugitive slaves in Stone Brothers uprising are captured, their leaders are executed—5 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 278]


December, 1826, Between Maryland and GeorgiaMutiny on the Decatur:  African slaves being transported by boat rebel and kill two crewmen, and command third to take them to Haiti, and though ship is captured and taken to New York, all slaves escape except one—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 278]


December 15, 1826, New YorkExecution of William Bowser:  Lone slave captured from mutiny on Decatur is executed—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 278]


January, 1827, South CarolinaFugitive Slaves Killed in South Carolina:  Two separate cases in state court show exoneration of European-Americans who had each killed one African Slave they feared were fugitive slaves—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 279]


January 29, 1827, Baltimore, MarylandAustin Woolfolk Assaults Benjamin Lundy:  Slave trader assaults Quaker abolitionist who had been criticizing him, and when abolitionist sues, court fines slave trader only one dollar, and judge further urges slave trader to sue abolitionist for libel, but grand jury refuses to indict him—0 killed, 1 wounded 


June 20, 1827, Fork of Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, AlabamaNest of Runaways on Alabama River Discovered:  Search party from Mobile County discovers encampment of runaway slaves at river fork and attacks them, "shooting" three (report does not say whether they are killed or wounded—0 killed, 4 wounded  [Aptheker, p 279-80]


Early 1829, 40 Miles Outside Of New Orleans, Louisiana1829 Louisiana Slave Uprising:  General uprising of African slaves on remote Louisiana plantations is suppressed and their leaders hanged—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 282-3]


Summer, 1829, Christ Church and St James Parishes, South CarolinaDeer Hunters' Encounter:  Band of European-American deer hunters of master class stumble upon band of escaped and marauding African slaves—0 killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker, p 285]


July 4, 1829, Hanover County, Virginia1829 Hanover County Slave Uprising:  Eight African slaves kill or wound members of European master class—1 killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker, p 284]


August, 1829, in transit from Maryland1829 Fist-Fighting Slaves:  Two African slaves pretend to fight each other until guards intervene, whom slaves then kill, and slaves' owner is set upon but escapes, and slaves are captured and six are executed, including woman publicly hanged, and man who exclaims, just before his death, "death at any time in preference to slavery"—8 killed, 1 wounded  [Aptheker, p 287]


December, 1829, Offshore, Southern StatesMutiny aboard Lafayette:  African slaves being sailed from Norfolk to New Orleans revolt, but revolt fails as some are “severely wounded,” and ship continues on it way with many slaves now bolted down to deck of ship—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 98]


April, 1830, New Orleans, Louisiana1830 New Orleans Conspiracy:  Two African slaves executed for conspiracy—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 288]


October, 1830, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana1830 Plaquemines Conspiracy:  One hundred African slaves conspire to rebel and, when uncovered, their leaders are "punished"—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 288]


November, 1830, North CarolinaMoses' Confessions:  Captured fugitive African slave describes extensive resistance network including arms and ammunition, several camps hidden in swamps, and messengers to and from camps, and investigating party from European-American ruling class finds one white woman involved who is hiding arms and feeding Africans, and camp in Dover where they burned eleven houses and "it is supposed they killed several of the negroes"—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 289]


December 25, 1830, Newbern, North CarolinaPreempting Newbern Christmas Attack:  Band of fugitive Africa slaves assembled in swampland plan to attack European-American master class on Christmas, but are completely destroyed by military action beforehand—60 killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 289-90]


August to November 1831, Southhampton County, VirginiaSouthhampton Insurrection:  African slave and Bible preacher Nat Turner, in obedience to heavenly vision that tells him to “slay my enemies with their own weapons,” leads slave rebellion, finding ready followers who believe, because of War Of 1812, that God will send British to help them—311 killed (including 200 random African slaves or African-American citizens after initial rebellion is crushed), X wounded


July 7-10, 1834, New York City, New YorkAnti-Abolitionist Riots of 1834:  Pro-slavery forces beat up abolitionists and destroy their property—0 killed, X wounded


1835-8, FloridaBlack Seminole Slave Rebellion:  Native Americans invite African slaves to join them in general insurrection—398 killed (1590 dead soldiers * 25% of insurrectionists are slaves), X wounded


August 6-9, 1835, Baltimore, MarylandBaltimore Bank Riot:  After failure of Bank of Maryland, poor investors, believing they had been defrauded by rich bank officials, destroy those officials' homes, until they are shot down by civilian army hastily assembled by new mayor—20 killed, 100 wounded [Zinn, p 222-3]


October 1, 1835, Boston, MassachusettsAttack on William Lloyd Garrison:  Pro-Slavery forces drag with rope and strip abolitionist, who once publicly burned copy of U.S. Constitution for its condoning of slavery, before he is finally jailed for his own protection—0 killed, 1 wounded


October, 1835, Brazos River, TexasBrazos Rebellion:  European Americans in Texas hear rumor that Mexican forces aim to free their African slaves and “let them lose on their families,” but slaves also hear same rumor, so when force of 2000 Mexicans approaches Brazos River, slaves attempt to rise, but are put down by their owners—X killed, 100 wounded (some of these approx 100 slaves were killed, but not knowing how many, we list them here as being at least wounded)  [Aptheker, p 93]


November 7, 1837, Alton, IllinoisDeath of Elijah Parish Lovejoy:  Minister dies in gun battle defending his abolitionist printing press from pro-slavery forces—2 killed, 1 wounded


November 7, 1841, at sea between Virginia and LouisianaCreole Rebellion:  Slave Madison Washington leads American slaves to take over ship and sail it to Nassau where they eventually find freedom, assisted by England, which governs Nassau, and which had abolished slavery in 1833, and which refuses to return these slaves to U.S., which leads U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster to press for war against England—2 killed, X wounded


1842, Rhode IslandDorr Rebellion:  Bystander killed by accident in battle between state government and rebels against property requirement for voting, who succeed in establishing competing state government—1 killed, X wounded


November 15, 1842, territory of Cherokee Nation1842 Slave Revolt in the Cherokee Nation:  Cherokee pursuers capture their escaped African-American slaves before they can reach Mexico—7 killed, X wounded


Summer, 1845, Hudson Valley, New YorkNew York Anti-Rent War:  Rebels against high rents imposed by one family having 80,000 tenants and $41 million kill deputy sheriff trying to sell off cattle of farmer to settle his debts—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Zinn, p. 213]


September, 1845, Hudson Valley, New YorkNew York Anti-Rent War continued:  During trial for farmers protesting against feudal leases, two leading counsels fistfight in court—0 killed, 2 wounded


August 15, 1847, Northern MexicoMutiny Against Robert Paine:  Volunteer soldiers in Mexican-American War mutiny against tyrant colonel, who kills one mutineer, but two lieutenants refuse to help colonel kill any more, and remaining mutineers are exonerated—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Zinn, p. 168]


May 10, 1849, New York City, New YorkAstor Place Riot:  Riot between supporters of two Shakespearean actors, one American and one English, American favored by lower classes and English favored by upper classes, elicits state militia firing into crowd and leads to creation of first police force armed with deadly weapons—25+ killed, 120+ wounded


March 1850, Smithland, KentuckyDeath of Seth Concklin:  Captors bash in head of Underground Railroad operative, friend of Underground Railroad organizer William Still, after he was already dead from drowning while trying to escape, though Underground Railroad itself could not be stopped, throughout 50’s helping about 1000 slaves per year (W. B. Hesseltine puts average number from 1830 to 1860 at 2000 per year) escape to Canada, Mexico, or Northern U.S., staffed by colorful personalities like 5'0" Harriet Tubman, ex-African slave bearing lifelong head wound from her former master, who carries pistol and, like Patrick Henry, says she will accept only liberty or death, and who alone helps more than 300 slaves escape in 19 attempts, though her efforts pale compared to those of J. W. Loguen, escaped slave become eloquent minister, who helps 1500—1 killed, 0 wounded


August 8, 1850, New York City, New YorkNew York Tailor Strike of 1850:  300, mostly German, striking tailors armed with clubs clash with police resulting in first recorded strike fatalities in U.S. history—2 killed, X wounded wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


July 1, 1851, Portage, New YorkPortage Railroad Strike:  In first recorded instance of Americans being killed at strike, New York state militia fires on strikers—2 killed, X wounded


September 11, 1851, Christiana, PennsylvaniaChristiana Resistance:  Fugitive slaves and their sympathizers shoot a Maryland slave owner and beat his son, a deputy marshall attempting to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act by returning his father’s slaves to captivity—1 killed, 1 wounded


May 26, 1854, Boston, MassachusettsMurder of James Batchelder:  Inspired by abolitionist Thomas Wentworth Higginson, crowd kills a U.S. deputy marshall while trying to prevent fugitive slave Anthony Burns from being returned to slavery—1 killed, 0 wounded


October 1854, Boston, MassachusettsButman Riot:  Inspired by abolitionist Thomas Wentworth Higginson, crowd severely beats kidnapper of Anthony Burns and other fugitive slaves—0 killed, 1 wounded


January 19, 1855, Richmond, VirginiaArsonist Slave Executed:  Slave shows no emotion when hanged for arson—1 killed, 0 wounded [Aptheker, p 147]


November 21, 1855, Lawrence, KansasFranklin Coleman Shoots Charles Dow:  Pro-slavery settler in Kansas Territory shots abolitionist, starting chain of events known collectively as “Bleeding Kansas,” revolving around whether to admit Kansas to Union as free state or slave state—1 killed, 0 wounded


December, 1855, Lawrence, KansasWakarusa War:  Pro-slavery attackers from Missouri mass near Wakarusa River in Bleeding Kansas, intending to attack Lawrence, but defenders save Lawrence with only one casualty, Thomas Barber, memorialized in a poem by John Greenleaf Whittier—1 killed, 0 wounded


May 21, 1856, Lawrence, KansasSacking of Lawrence:  Avengers of non-fatal shooting of slave-state sheriff, carrying blood-red flag inscribed with words “southern rights,” and inspired by writings of Benjamin Stringfellow that Kansas shall be slave state even if “our rivers should be covered with the blood of their victims, and the carcasses of the abolitionists should be so numerous in the territory as to breed disease and sickness,” attack free-state hotel in Bleeding Kansas, killing one of the attackers—1 killed, 1 wounded


May 22, 1856, Washington, DCPreston Brooks Beats Charles Sumner:  Pro-slavery U.S. Representative beats abolitionist U.S. Senator, while U.S. Rep Laurence Keitt holds would-be helpers off with pistol, in retaliation for anti-slavery speech that had insulted his uncle, so badly about the head with walking cane that Senator does not return to work for three years—0 killed, 1 wounded


May 24 to 25, 1856, Pottawatomie Creek, KansasPottawatomie Massacre:  After learning that his family is marked for attack by pro-slavery forces, abolitionist John Brown and his sons, in three separate instances, hack to death Kansan participants in Sacking of Lawrence—5 killed, 0 wounded


July 2 1856, Richmond, VirginiaSlave Self-Mutilation at Richmond:  Three slaves, to avoid being sold, cut off three fingers from each hand—0 killed, 3 wounded [Aptheker, p 142]


August 30, 1856, Osawatomie, KansasBattle of Osawatomie:  After one of his sons and one other free-state Kansan are shot dead, abolitionist John Brown and his force of 38 Kansans defend free-state settlements in yet another Bleeding Kansas town against force of more than 300 slave-state Missourians, inflicting many more casualties than sustaining, before finally retreating—22+ killed, 40+ wounded


Late 1856, Lavaca County, TexasWhipping of Davidson:  Ohio abolitionist is rightly or wrongly implicated in slave plot and whipped 100 strokes—0 killed, 1 wounded [Aptheker, p 111]


1857, MississippiArsonist Slave Executed:  When a master asks his slave why he burned down his gin-house, he replies because he wanted to be hanged—1 killed, 0 wounded [Aptheker, p 147]


Summer, 1857, New York City, New YorkEconomic Riots of 1857:  500 unemployed workers attack police with pistols and bricks—X killed, X wounded [Zinn, p 228]


November 11, 1857, New York City, New York1857 Tompkins Square Park Bread Riot:  Police attack immigrants after they had protested unemployment and food shortages for months and carried off park benches and fences for firewood—0 killed, X wounded


February 5, 1858, Washington, DCBrawl in U.S. House of Representatives:  Pro-slavery U.S. Representative Laurence Keitt starts brawl involving fifty people by choking abolitionist U.S. Rep Galusha Grow after Keitt, demanding that Grow sit down, calls him a “black Republican puppy,” and Grow responds, “No negro-driver shall crack his whip over me.”—0 killed, X wounded


October 16 to 19, 1859, Harper’s Ferry, VirginiaJohn Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry:  Abolitionist John Brown, armed by rich Boston supporters with 200 rifles and 950 pikes left over from battles in Bleeding Kansas, which finally is admitted to Union as free state, all its combatants being pardoned by Governor, and having met with other leading abolitionists including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Frederick Douglas (who did not participate only because he thought the plan had no chance of success), Harriet Tubman (who did not participate only because she was sick), and Bronson Alcott, and having already freed slaves by recent incursions into slave-state Missouri, leads party that seizes U.S. arsenal and tries to start slave rebellion by distributing seized arms, but is defeated by marines under command of General Robert E. Lee, later head of Confederate forces during the U.S. Civil War, one African-American rebel, Dangerfield Newby, fighting for freedom of his wife, whose love letters found in his pocket galvanize national opposition to slavery, having his ears cut off as souvenirs—19 (another source said 18) killed, 10+ wounded


December 2, 1859 to March 16, 1860, X, VirginiaExecution of John Brown’s Party:  Commemorated in Walt Whitman’s poem “Year of Meteors,” and John Greenleaf Whittier’s poem “Brown of Ossawatomie,” and in song “John Brown’s Body” that inspires Union soldiers in U.S. Civil War, state of Virginia hangs militant abolitionists, under security detail led by Major Thomas J. Jackson, later Confederate General “Stonewall” Jackson, with presidential assassin and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Boothe also being in attendance in a borrowed uniform, including among the executed their leader John Brown, who, on the eve of the American Civil War, correctly predicts that "the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood," and that "you may dispose of me very easily . . . but this [Negro] question is still to be settled," and who argues in religious terms that his interference on “behalf of [God’s] despised poor, was not wrong, but right,” and who refuses to be rescued by Silas Soule after he infiltrates jail, preferring in his own words to die a “martyr,” and whose execution, again expressed in religious terms, according to Ralph Waldo Emerson, “will make the gallows glorious like the cross,” and according to French author Victor Hugo, would be an “uncorrectable sin,” adding that, “there is something more frightening than Cain killing Abel, and that is Washington killing Spartacus,” and upon his death abolitionist areas of the United States ring church bells and fire rifle salutes in his honor, although abolitionist and American publisher William Lloyd Garrison calls Brown “well-intended but sadly misguided,” and abolitionist and future American president Abraham Lincoln calls him merely “insane”—7 killed, 0 wounded


1860, TennesseeDeath of John Fairfield:  Repression of slave insurrection kills Underground Railroad operative—1 killed, X wounded


Early 1862, Culpepper County, VirginiaCulpepper County Conspiracy:  African slaves and African American citizens executed for plot to free slaves based on copies of preliminary Emancipation Proclamation found in their possession—17 killed, 0 wounded  [Aptheker, p 94-5]


August 12, 1862, Buffalo, New YorkBuffalo Riot of 1862:  Striking Irish and German stevedores fight against local police, who fire on them—0 killed, 5 wounded




July 13 to 16, 1863, New York City, New YorkNew York Draft Riots:  Lower-class European-American citizens riot over $300 commutation fee to avoid being drafted into Civil War, similar to riots over same issue during Revolutionary War, except much more violent, beating upper-class citizens and lawmen, and burning 50 buildings to ground, including orphanage for African-American children because African-American adults compete with lower-class European-American citizens for jobs, until President Abraham Lincoln sends federal troops to suppress riot with shoot-to-kill orders—120 (another source said 2000) killed, 2000 (another source said 8000) injured


July 14, 1863, Boston, MassachusettsBoston Draft Riots:  On very day that draft notices are first distributed in Boston, large crowd of men, women, and children fight with federal draft agents and police, and then attempt to break into federal armory, which fires its canon one time into crowd, killing unknown number of people, but including a 12-year-old boy and middle age man whose arm is nearly severed, and wounding many more—2+ killed, X wounded


February, 1864, South CarolinaExecution of William Walker:  African-American volunteer army sergeant is shot for ordering his men to stack their weapons in protest of unequal pay, though just months later congress actually does raise pay of African-American soldiers to equal that of European-American soldiers—1 killed, 0 wounded


May, 1864, Yazoo City, MississippiBurning of Yazoo City:  African slaves, encouraged by successes of Union army, burn down courthouse and 14 homes—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 95]


June, 1864, Richmond, VirginiaCapture of Bob Richardson:  African-American waiter, inspired by Union confidants to organize rebellion, to receive his “just desserts”—X killed, X wounded  [Aptheker, p 95]


December 21, 1864, Robeson County, North CarolinaHenry Berry Lowry’s First Murder:  Native American forced into unpaid labor by Confederacy kills member of Confederate Home Guard who accuses his family of stealing food and harboring Union pow’s—1 killed, 0 wounded


1865 to 1872, Robeson County, North CarolinaLowry War:  Native American organizes fellow Native Americans, escaped slaves, Confederate deserters, and escaped Union pow’s into gang that murders head of local KKK, kills husband of Mary C. Norment, author of “The Lowery History,” shoots local sheriff and steals his safe, steals food from rich homes and shares it with poor families in Pembroke area of North Carolina, where he is still remembered and honored with annual outdoor play “Strike At The Wind,” escapes from jail, and attacks indeterminate number of other Confederate or Democratic officials, killing at least eight others and wounding at least one other, and robs indeterminate number of houses, ending when his brother is killed, and at least two other gang members are executed, though he himself escapes forever with bounty on his head twice that offered for notorious outlaw Jesse James—13+ killed, 2+ wounded


January 15, 1865, Robeson County, North CarolinaHenry Berry Lowry’s Second Murder:  Native American forced into unpaid labor by Confederacy kills member of Confederate Home Guard who abuses his family’s women—1 killed, 0 wounded


March 3, 1865, Robeson County, North CarolinaExecution of Henry Berry Lowry’s Family:  Native American forced into unpaid labor by Confederacy watches from his hiding place in swamp as Confederate Home Guard executes his father and brother for possessing firearms, which is illegal for non-European-Americans—2 killed, 0 wounded


August 13, 1870, Mamaroneck, New YorkMamaroneck Riot:  Irish laborers and Italian laborers fight against each other with stones and knives over Italians’ willingness to accept lower wage—4 killed, X wounded


May 17, 1871, Scranton, PennsylvaniaWorkingmen's Benevolent Association Union Coal Strike:  One member of state troops escorting strike-breakers from mine returns fire on rock-throwing strikers—2 killed, 0 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


1874, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaItalian Strikebreakers Killed:  Striking bituminous coal miners kill strikebreakers that company had imported from Europe—3 killed, X wounded  [Zinn, p 244]


January 13, 1874, New York City, New YorkTompkins Square Park Riot:  Local police disperse crowd of unemployed workers, who had gathered to demonstrate for public employment opportunities, by trampling and beating men, women, and children in what AFL founder Samuel Gompers called “an orgy of brutality,” but police commissioner Abram Duryee called “the most glorious sight I ever saw”—0 killed, 200+ wounded


1875, Anthracite Coal Region, PennsylvaniaAttack on Ancient Order of Hibernians:  Mine superintendent Bradley leads local vigilantes who shoot member of Irish group associated with coalmine unionism—1 killed, X wounded


1875, Anthracite Coal Region, PennsylvaniaAttack on Striking Coalminers:  Mine boss Patrick Vary fires into crowd of striking coalminers who flee, leaving, in words of one eyewitness, “long trail of blood behind them”—0 killed, X wounded


1875, Tuscarora, PennsylvaniaAttack on Striking Coalminers’ Meeting:  Local vigilantes shoot up meeting of striking coalminers—1 killed, 2+ wounded


1875, Anthracite Coal Region, PennsylvaniaAttack on Hugh McGeehan:  Local vigilantes shoot body and house of reportedly violent striking coalminer—0 killed, 1 wounded


March, 1875, Anthracite Coal Region, PennsylvaniaAssassination of Edward Coyle:  Local vigilantes shoot coalmine union leader—1 killed, X wounded


December 10, 1875, Anthracite Coal Region, PennsylvaniaAttack on Molly Maguires:  Local vigilantes attack coalmine workers and their wives at home for belonging to Irish group associated with coalmine unionism—2 killed, 2 wounded


Summer, 1876, Anthracite Coal Region, PennsylvaniaAttacks by and on Molly Maguires:  Irish mineworkers kill six German and Welsh associates of mine owners, and unknown assailants kill unknown number of Irish mineworkers and dump their bodies in mine shafts—6+ killed, 0 wounded


November 18, 1876, Anthracite Coal Region, PennsylvaniaThree Days of Attacks by and on Molly Maguires:  Irish mineworkers exchange attacks with German and Welsh associates of mine owners, including throat slitting, crucifixion, and wounding one so badly that he is simply left for dead in stable door—4 killed, 4 wounded


Late 1876, Anthracite Coal Region, PennsylvaniaFive Assassinations by Molly Maguires:  Irish mineworkers kill night watchman Yost, Justice of the Peace Gwyther, bartender Gomer James, and mine boss Sanger and his associate—5 killed, 1 wounded


March 14, 1877, Chico, CaliforniaNativist Labor Union Kills Chinese Farmhands:  Members of American nativist labor union plot murder and arson before killing four Chinese farmhands in worker's cabin—4 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


June 21, 1877, Pottsville and Mauch Chuck, PennsylvaniaExecution of Molly Maguires at Pottsville and Mauch Chuck:  After trial completely orchestrated by president of coalmine company, state of Pennsylvania on flimsy evidence hangs members of Irish group associated with coalmine unionist violence, including Alexander Campbell, who stamps his handprint on prison wall as testimony to his innocence, and which handprint prison officials are never able to clean off—10 killed, 0 wounded


June, 1877-1879, Mauch Chunk, Pottsville, Bloomsburg and Sunbury, PennsylvaniaExecution of Molly Maguires continued:  After trial completely orchestrated by president of coalmine company, state of Pennsylvania on flimsy evidence hangs more members of Irish group associated with coalmine unionist violence—10 killed, 0 wounded


July 13, 1877, Martinsburg, West VirginiaGreat Railroad Strike of 1877 at Martinsburg:  Marking the beginning of "Great Upheaval of 1877," which President Hayes calls “an insurrection,” in which railroad workers, and other associated workers such as coalminers, strike against wage cuts up to 46% while nonworking company owners make 10% dividends, and at least 580,000 workers from Boston to Kansas City go on strike despite the absence of unions, and in which worker issues replace slave issues as the frontline in America’s ongoing class war, and four years after the great depression of 1873 that after two years had left 80% of American workers without full time jobs, striker is shot in crowd of strikers trying to prevent trains from moving, when rich bankers, such as JP Morgan and August Belmont, privately fund army to keep trains moving—1 killed, 0 wounded


July 14, 1877, Cumberland, MarylandGreat Railroad Strike of 1877 at Cumberland:  Outnumbered Maryland militia members fire on confrontational strikers, who retaliate by wounding militia members and destroying buildings and equipment, though half of militia quits when popular support for strike grows to 15,000 people—10 killed, 25 wounded


July 21 to 22, 1877, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaGreat Railroad Strike of 1877 at Pittsburgh:  After Pennsylvania Railroad executive TA Scott says working-class strikers should be given a “rifle diet for a few days,” but local police refuse to fire on them, and railroad strike develops into a general strike that includes mills and factories, Pennsylvania militia fires on and bayonets rock-throwing strikers and sympathetic citizens, who retaliate by destroying 39 buildings, as well as 104 locomotives and 1245 freight and passenger cars stretching over three miles long, though militia in nearby Lebanon and Altoona side with strikers and give up their arms, and some militia in Pittsburgh also refuse to fight, one saying he'd rather shoot president of company—49 killed, 29+ wounded


July 23, 1877, Reading, PennsylvaniaReading Railroad Massacre Massacre (Great Railroad Strike of 1877 at Reading):  Corporate officials, not government officials, summon state militia to fire on strikers and their sympathizers blocking railroad tracks because company is two months in arrears of paying wages—10 killed (including five local police officers), 40 (another source said more than 24) wounded


July 25, 1877, Chicago, IllinoisGreat Railroad Strike of 1877 at Chicago:  After speech by Albert Parsons, later executed as one of Haymarket Five, calling for nationalization of railroads, national guard and federal troops fire on confrontational strikers, who retaliate by wounding their attackers and destroying buildings and equipment—20 killed, 40+ wounded


July 25, 1877, Shamokin, PennsylvaniaShamokin Uprising:  Local vigilantes fire on rioting strikers who had turned down offers for public assistance—2 killed, 12 wounded


July 25, 1877, Chicago, IllinoisTurner Hall Raid:  Local police attack German furniture workers in their union hall—1 killed, X wounded


July 25, 1877, New York City, New York1877 Speeches At Tompkins Square Park:  Police charge 20,000 spectators with billy clubs who had gathered to hear left-leaning speeches, last speaker's last word's being, "Whatever we poor men may not have, we have free speech, and no one can take it from us"—0 killed, X wounded


July 25-6, 1877, Chicago, IllinoisBattle of the Viaduct:  U.S. troops and local police suppress uprising of German furniture workers and sympathizers avenging Turner Hall Raid—30 killed, 113 wounded


July 28, 1877, East St. Louis, MissouriGreat Railroad Strike of 1877 at East St. Louis:  Federal troops and deputized special police fire on railroad strikers in collusion with St. Louis Workingman’s Party, who had joined railroad workers to form first general strike in U.S.—18+ killed, X wounded


April 18, 1878, Coal Creek, IndianaUnion Attack on Coal Creek Replacement Workers:  Striking coal miners kill African-American replacement workers, one shot to death in drunken argument in saloon, and two more killed in street afterward—3 killed, 0 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


1880's, Hudson Valley, New YorkNew York Anti-Rent War continued:  Deputy sheriff trying to evict indebted farmer is shotgunned to death—1 killed, 0 wounded [Zinn, p. 214]


September 2, 1885, Rock Springs, WyomingRock Springs Massacre:  Race riot as well as labor dispute, and mentioned by President Grover Cleveland in his State of the Union address, European-American coal miners, well-known but acquitted anyway, attack Chinese coal miners for their willingness to accept lower wage, and perhaps also for their use as strikebreakers in 1875 railroad strike, some by scalping, branding, castrating, bobbitizing, dismembering, decapitating, or hanging from gutter spouts, and destroying a total 95 of their homes—28 killed, 15 wounded


May 4, 1885, Lemont, IllinoisLemont Quarry Strike:  Striking foreign quarrymen and their spouses throw stones at state militia, who respond by firing their guns into crowd—2 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


April 3, 1886, Fort Worth, TexasGreat Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886 at Fort Worth:  Strikers opposed to railroad owner Jay Gould, who quips, "I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half," kill one deputy and wound two others—1 killed, 2 wounded


April 8, 1886, St Louis, MissouriGreat Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886 at St Louis:  Non-union switchman and private watchman kill striker, and [Zinn, p. 269] nine young men recruited as marshals refuse to oppose strike so are arrested and jailed for three months for defrauding company—1 killed, 0 wounded


April 9, 1886, East St Louis, IllinoisGreat Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886 at East St Louis:  Guards fire into crowd of striking switchmen and kill six, and crowd subsequently sets Louisville and Nashville depot railroad yard on fire—6 killed, X wounded


April 26, 1886, Wyandotte, KansasGreat Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886 at Wyandotte:  Sabotage derails freight train that kills two non-striking workers, and six unionists are charged with crime on evidence of informer—2 killed, X wounded


May 3, 1886, Chicago, IllinoisHaymarket Shooting:  Local police fire on unarmed McCormick Harvesting Machine plant workers striking against 15% wage cuts while company owners profit 71%—4 (another source said 2) killed, X wounded


May 4, 1886, Chicago, IllinoisHaymarket Massacre:  In retaliation for Haymarket Shooting, unknown assailant explodes bomb in crowd of police officers at workers rally, wounding or killing many, and police respond by shooting into crowd listening to workers' leaders' speeches, wounding or killing many—12 killed, 259 wounded


May 5, 1886, Milwaukee, WisconsinBayview Massacre:  National guard, on shoot-to-kill order from state governor, and aware of yesterday’s attack on police officers in Chicago’s Haymarket Square, fires on unarmed, peaceful strikers amalgamated from various building trades, cigar makers, brewery workers, and Polish laborers, and their families, killing 13-year-old boy and others, The Milwaukee Journal commending state governor for his quick action—15 killed (another source said 9, and another source said 7), X wounded


June 4, 1886, New York City, New YorkNew York Streetcar Conductors Strike:  Thousands of striking streetcar conductors and their sympathizers are beat down by local police until, in words of Sun periodical, "Men with broken scalps were crawling off in all directions"—X killed, X wounded


November 5, 1887, Pattersonville, LouisianaPattersonville Massacre:  National guardsmen and sheriff's posse  shoot mostly African-American sugar cane workers on strike organized by the Knights of Labor—20 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


November 22, 1887, Thibodaux, LouisianaThibodaux Massacre:  Local vigilantes shoot fleeing and unarmed, predominantly African-American sugar cane workers on strike organized by Knights Of Labor, and hang their leaders—37 (another source said 300) killed, 200+ (''hundreds" [Zinn, p 274]) wounded


November 10-11, 1887, Chicago, IllinoisExecution of Haymarket Five:  State of Illinois on flimsy evidence hangs four worker activists, and fifth commits suicide before he is hanged, in retaliation for Haymarket bombing, though closest one is mile and half away at time of explosion, one of the condemned exclaiming, "The time will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today," all of them singing the Marseillaise of the French revolution, 25,000 outraged citizens attending their funeral procession, Illinois Governor granting full pardon to remaining defendants in jail, wife of one of executed persuading craftsman/painter/poet William Morris to write poem “May Day” in their honor, writer George Bernard Shaw chiming in that if the world had to lose eight persons, then they should be the Illinois Supreme Court, and entire world starting annual tradition of May Day celebrations in their remembrance, though President Grover Cleveland tries to diffuse the international flavor of this tradition by arbitrarily choosing September 1 to be America’s own private Labor Day, and later U.S. Congress declares May Day instead to be “Loyalty Day,” and Governor Nelson Rockefeller, whose grandfather slaughtered striking miners and their families in Ludlow Massacre, adds that traditional May Day “border[s] on treason”—5 killed, 0 wounded


1889, Delhi, LouisianaDelhi Farmers Uprising:  Group of farmers destroys merchant's shops "to cancel their [farmer's] indebtedness"—X killed, X wounded  [Zinn, p 285]


September, 1891, Lee County, ArkansasCotton Pickers Strike of 1891:  Colored Farmers National Alliance strike against cotton fields becomes violent, and after plant manager is killed and cotton gin burned, strikers are hunted down and many of them killed—16 killed, X wounded


April 3, 1891, Morewood, PennsylvaniaMorewood Massacre:  Deputized members of national guard fire into crowd of striking miners as they march with brass band towards company store of H. C. (Henry Clay) Frick Coke Company—9 killed, X wounded


September 25, 1891, Lee County, ArkansasLee County Cotton Strike:  Striking African-American cotton pickers kill two non-striking workers and one plantation manager before being lynched by European-American—18 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


July 6, 1892, Homestead, PennsylvaniaHomestead Strike:  Striking against 72-hour work week that causes fatal accident, iron and steel workers, with many sympathizers from nearby town, shoot out with hired guards from security company that has more arms and men than entire U.S. military, on barges attempting to debark at Carnegie mill, 4th-of-July fireworks and a 20-pound canon being in strikers’ arsenal, and severely beat guards who surrender, Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice in league with mill owners filing bogus treason charges against strikers, outraging legal scholars, and prompting state prosecutors to refuse to prosecute, and strikers are acquitted of all criminal charges by sympathetic juries—18 (another source said 16, and another source said 9) killed, 31 wounded


July 11, 1892, Coeur D’Alene, IdahoFrisco and Gem Mine Strikes:  Reacting against reduction in wages, increase in days to seven a week, and company spies infiltrating their union, striking miners attack mines and their guards with gunfire and bombs, and following year organize radical Western Federation of Miners union—6 killed, 17 wounded


July 23, 1892, Homestead, PennsylvaniaAttempted Assassination of Henry Clay Frick:  Alexander Berkman, anarchist boyfriend of anarchist journal “Mother Earth” founder Emma Goldman, entering Carnegie Steel Plant on pretext of representing company of strikebreakers, shoots twice and stabs twice, before himself is beat unconscious, Carnegie Steel executive who had authorized shooting of strikers at Homestead Strike, alreadyclara hated for his avoiding lawsuits from families of 2000 working class citizens killed by flood in Johnstown caused by neglect and collapse of this executive’s hunting and fishing club’s private dam—0 killed, 2 wounded


August 15, 1892, Buffalo, New YorkBuffalo Switchmen's Strike:  New York State Legislature passes law mandating ten-hour workday and minimum wages, but Lehigh Valley Railroad, Erie Railroad, and Buffalo Creek Railroad refuse to obey new law, so Switchmen's Mutual Association strikes against them, burning and blowing up railroad cars, but rather than obey new law, New York Governor sends in 8000 troops to protect railroad property, three of whom are injured on this day by exploding railcar, so army general in charge orders imprisoning and beating all strikers—0 killed, 3+ wounded


March 16, 1894, Cripple Creek, ColoradoCripple Creek Miner’s Strike:  Striking miners capture six sheriff’s deputies—0 killed, 2 wounded


April 21, 1894, Forsyth, MontanaHoganites in Coxey’s March:  Commemorated in Jack London’s story “Two Thousand Stiffs,” protestors organized by Jacob Coxey and Charles Kelly march to DC throughout March and April without violence until William Hogan’s band commandeers a train—X killed, X wounded


July 5-10, 1894, Chicago, IllinoisPullman Strike:  After railroad workers, striking against refusal of company town to decrease rents after decreasing wages, led by founder of American Railway Union and future presidential candidate Eugene Debs, burn railroad cars and seven buildings at World’s Columbian Exposition, federal and state troops fire on them, though afterwards Illinois Supreme Court finds company town's paternalism un-American and forcibly annexes town to Chicago—34 killed (another source said 13), 57 wounded


May 25, 1894, Cripple Creek, ColoradoCripple Creek Miner’s Strike continued:  Striking miners shoot out with sheriff deputies fleeing explosions of mines being blown up—2 killed, 2 wounded


June, 1894, Telluride, ColoradoCripple Creek Miner’s Strike at Cripple Creek and Telluride:  Company financed army of 1300 men, no longer under sheriff’s control, assault whole towns for their sympathy with strikers, arresting and imprisoning hundreds, punching, kicking and clubbing them in their homes, and forcing others to walk through gauntlet of spitting, slapping, and kicking, until Governor sends state militia to contain them, marking first time any state militia is sent out in support of, rather than against, strikers—0 killed, X wounded


March 12, 1895, New Orleans, Louisiana1895 New Orleans Dockworkers Riot:  Unionized European-American dockworkers shoot non-union African-American dockworkers to death—6 killed, X wounded


September 21, 1896, Leadville, ColoradoLeadville Miner’s Strike:  Striking miners armed with guns and dynamite confront armed replacement workers at two different mines, but failing to attain successes of Cripple Creek strike, miners union leaves American Federation of Labor (AFL), and after Colorado Coal Field War of 1903-4, helps form the more radical Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)—5+ killed, X wounded


September 10, 1897, Hazelton, PennsylvaniaLattimer Massacre:  Sheriff’s deputies, well known but acquitted anyway, locally-born Protestants deputized for just this purpose, after beating unarmed and peaceful striking miners, foreign-born Catholics who had come in as strikebreakers but organized themselves, breaking one man’s arm, shoot them, making fun of their European ancestry, some deputies not even helping the wounded, and outrage over this slaughter establishes convention of using only national guard to breakup strikes, though national guard in Ludlow Massacre commits similar atrocities—25 killed, 37 wounded


October 12, 1898, Virden, IllinoisBattle of Virden:  Immortalized in labor leader Mother Jones’ burial request, “Will the miners see that I get a resting place in the same clay that shelters the miners who gave up their lives on the hills of Virden, Illinois. . . I hope it will be my consolation when I pass away to feel I sleep under the clay with those brave boys,” in ten-minute battle one guard describes, in reference to Spanish-American War then raging, as “hotter than San Juan Hill,” striking miners in open field shoot out with guards on train who were attempting to debark strikebreakers, whom had been lied to that miners they would replace had left to fight in war—12 killed (another source said 11, and another source said 8), 47 (other sources have widely different numbers) wounded


April 10, 1899, Pana, IllinoisPana Riot:  In confrontation between European-American union miners, African-American union miners, and African-American non-union miners, when European-American miner is thought to have been killed by African-American miner, conflict erupts—7 killed, 28 wounded [number of wounded from Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


April 29, 1899, Coeur D’Alene, IdahoBunker Hill Mine Bombing:  Reacting against firing of union miners, wages at three-quarters of next lowest in district (despite having paid out $600,000 in dividends to investors), seven-day work week, and workers needing local sheriff’s approval to seek job elsewhere, striking miners seize train, pick up other miners and 3000 pounds of dynamite, then 250 men drive their “Dynamite Express” to mine to blow it up, though mine later reopens with working conditions unchanged—2 killed, X wounded


1899-1900, Coeur D’Alene, IdahoBunker Hill Mine Prison Camp:  In retaliation for Bunker Hill Mine Bombing, state authorities, without hearings or formal charges, imprison all males in area, including doctor, preacher, postmaster, school superintendent, and two county commissioners and local sheriff whom they remove from power, and later an editor whose newspaper had criticized the camp, under harsh conditions in makeshift barn or homemade bullpen, 600 for more that one year, never charged, which, along with 1902 Colorado legislature ignoring union-sponsored referendum for 8-hour workday that passed with support of 72% of electorate, and which President Theodore Roosevelt referred to as a “grave error” on the part of Colorado not to “obey the will of the people and pass the eight-hour law,” persuaded Western Federation of Miners union that America was in antidemocratic class war that could be won only by striking—3 killed, X wounded


June 30, 1899, Lauderville, IllinoisFirst Conflict in Illinois Coal Wars:  Train carrying African-American miners is attacked, killing woman, and though attackers are well known, they are acquitted anyway—1 killed, 20 wounded


September 17, 1899, Carterville, IllinoisSecond Conflict in Illinois Coal Wars:  African-American non-union miners are attacked in riot, and though attackers are well known, they are acquitted anyway—5 killed, X wounded


May to September, 1900, St Louis, MissouriSt Louis Streetcar Strike of 1900:  Owner of streetcar company summarily fires all employees for organizing and replaces them with volunteers from police force, resulting in four months of deadly strike violence, including one incident on June 10 when 2500-member strong posse shoots strikers returning from picnic—14 killed, 200 wounded


July 3, 1901, Telluride, ColoradoSmuggler-Union Mine Strike:  After shootout, assistant company manager Arthur Collins submits to union demands to shutdown mine operations using nonunion miners, and year later he is killed by shotgun blast through window into his house—4 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


July 30 - October 2, 1901, San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco Waterfront Strike:  Waterfront workers strike, triggering sympathy strikes from bakers, sailors, and other labor groups, and leaving hundreds of ships unloaded—4 killed, 250 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


September 6, 1901, Buffalo, New YorkAssassination of William McKinley:  Assassin Leon Czolgosz, acting, he thinks, to rectify the inequality that allows the rich to exploit the poor, shoots President of United States—1 killed, 0 wounded


October 29, 1901, Auburn, New YorkExecution of Leon Czolgosz:  Morbidly captured on film, State of New York electrocutes President McKinley’s assassin, whose last words are, “I killed the president because he was the enemy of the good people—the working people.”—1 killed, 0 wounded


1902, Paterson, New JerseyPaterson Silk Strike:  Local police fire on unarmed striking silk workers, wounding in face Luigi Galleani, which radicalizes him to found ultra-violent, bomb-making group called "Galleanists"—X killed, 1+ wounded


October 12, 1902, Pana, IllinoisAnthracite Coal Strike of 1902:  Hired guards attack striking miners, prompting President Theodore Roosevelt to intervene and arbitrate, becoming the first U.S. President ever to side with workers in a labor dispute, winning for them both pay increase and reduction of hours, and acquiring his administration nickname “The Square Deal”—14 killed, 22 wounded


February 25, 1903, Stanaford, West VirginiaBattle of Stanaford:  US Deputy Marshall, County Sheriff, and Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency lead early-morning posse into town to arrest strikers for ignoring court injunction but end up shooting miners, many of whom are still sleeping, including three black men in their family home and three white men elsewhere, Mother Jones afterward visiting Stanaford to comfort mourning families and writing about experience, and Raleigh County Judge BF Keller exonerating murderers because they were "trying to execute a lawful arrest"—6 killed, X wounded


July, 1903, Idaho Springs, ColoradoIdaho Springs Strike:  Explosion in mine worked only by strikebreakers, indicating explosion is caused by union bomb, inexplicably kills union miner, and thus prompts employer’s association illegally to take over civil government to expel 23 union miners from town—1 killed, X wounded


December, 1903, Teller County, ColoradoMartial Law In Teller County:  After mine owners are found guilty in court of sabotaging train to blame it on union, and explosion at Vindicator mine occurs under similarly dubious circumstance, former mine manager who heads national guard in Colorado nevertheless declares martial law, suspending constitutional rights of free speech, free assembly, and bearing arms, and his forces shoot an unaffiliated lawyer who refuses to give up his gun—0 killed, 1 wounded


June 6, 1904, Independence, ColoradoVengeance for Explosion at Independence Depot:  Unidentified mine explosion—although one militia sergeant testifies that mine owner’s gunmen killed someone to keep him quiet about it—causes mine owners to force 30 public officials to resign and replace them with their own anti-union colleagues, and when secretary of mine owners organization gives hate speech, crowd shoots indiscriminately into crowd of union members, chasing them into union hall, and continues to fire on them until they surrender, then destroys union hall and loots union co-ops, and deports 230 union miners across state lines, for which union in 1909 receives $60,000 in damages from Colorado state legislature—3 killed, 7 wounded


June 8, 1904, Eight Miles South of Victor, ColoradoAttack on Victor Prospectors:  130 members of national guard attack fifteen union prospectors—1 killed, X wounded


June 8, 1904, Dunnville, ColoradoDunnville Massacre:  Colorado militia fires on, imprisons, and deports lightly armed, striking miners—6 killed (another source said 1), X wounded


August 18, 1904, Chicago, IllinoisAmalgamated Meat Cutters First Strike:  African-American strikebreakers, while attempting to round up stray cattle, are pelted with rocks by some in crowd of 4000 striking union members, causing 150 policemen to form cordon to protect them—0 killed, X wounded


April-July, 1905, Chicago, Illinois1905 Chicago Teamsters Strike:  What begins as Teamsters sympathy strike for National Tailors Association striking against Montgomery Ward, whose goods Teamsters haul, ends up as all-out no-holds-barred effort by Chicago Employers Association to crush Teamsters Union—21 killed, 416 wounded


August 10, 1905, New York City, New YorkFederman's Bakery Strike:  New York Tribune reports that, after strikers rough up two policeman, "Policemen smashed heads right and left with their nightsticks"—0 killed, X wounded  [Zinn, p 324-5]


February 19, 1907, Milwaukee, WisconsinDeath of Peter J. Cramer:  Thugs hired by Allis-Chalmers company beat to death strike leader of International Molders Union—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


May 7, 1907, San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco Streetcar Strike:  Notorious strikebreaker James A. Farley's men shoot out with strikers—2 killed, 20 wounded 


1908-9, Spokane, WashingtonSpokane Free Speech Fight:  After city passes loophole legislation allowing religious groups to be exempted from the city’s new anti-free speech laws, IWW union resists those laws by flooding public speaking area with new speakers every time one is arrested, and though famous IWW spokeswoman Elizabeth Gurley Flynn delays her arrest by chaining herself to lamppost, she too is arrested, and when she reports in IWW magazine on police raping woman prisoners, police try to suppress story by destroying every copy of magazine—X killed, X wounded


December 25, 1908, Stearns, KentuckyBattle at McFerrin Hotel:  US Marshalls trying to arrest strike leader burn down hotel and shoot striking coal miners—2 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


August 22, 1909, McKees Rocks, PennsylvaniaPressed Steel Car Strike of 1909:  Private security agents and state police shootout with striking steel workers—26 (another source said 12) killed, 50+ wounded


Fall, 1909, New York City, New YorkUprising of 20,000:  Strike of 20,000 garment workers begins with spontaneous walkout at Triangle Shirtwaist Company, which is only company in district never to sign contract with workers, and which hires local prostitutes as replacement workers to show its contempt for strikers, and which hires thugs who break six ribs of activist Clara Lemlich, and which in March 1911 is site of fire that kills 146 workers locked in to prevent unauthorized breaks—though locked doors will cause more deaths, 168, in fire at Speculator Mine near Butte in June 1917— which inspires creation of American Society Of Safety Engineers in New York City seven months later, and which moves eyewitness Frances Perkins to dedicate her life to helping workers and leads her eventually to become first female head of Federal Department of Labor, and though owners are acquitted in criminal trial, their lawyers arguing that workers’ statements must be rehearsed because they are in such perfect agreement, they lose civil trial, and so must pay $75 per killed worker, which they pay out of insurance payout of $400 per worker, so they profit $325 per killed worker, and unlike owners of Bangladeshi garment factory convicted of criminal negligence for locking doors in January 2013 fire that kills seven, Triangle owners never show remorse, and one of them is arrested in 1913 for again locking doors and fined only $20—0 killed, 1 wounded


1910, Tampa, FloridaTampa Lynchings of 1910:  Cigar bosses lynch five labor organizers throughout 1910—5 killed, 0 wounded [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


March 10, 1910 to July 1,1911, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania Westmoreland County Coal Strike of 1910–1911:  Also called "Slovak Strike," because 70% of miners are Slovak, causing division among strikers because of prejudice against foreigners, coal miners decide to strike despite not being sanctioned by UMWA union, nearly all violence being committed by state and company deputies against usually unarmed miners or their families, killing more miners' wives than miners, with support of court, which jails local sheriff when he tries to prevent unprovoked attacks on strikers or their families, and also imprisons miners' wives and their children, who are raped by state and company deputies, but, being advised by Mother Jones, sing all night long until they are released from jail by urgings of sleep-deprived town—16 (another source said 15) killed, 30+ wounded


March 18, 1910, Spokane, WashingtonSpokane Free Speech Fight continued:  Police beat Samuel O. Chinn to death in jailhouse—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


April 5, 1910, Spokane, WashingtonSpokane Free Speech Fight continued:  Police mistreat FJ Ferry in jail—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


October 1, 1910, Los Angeles, CaliforniaLos Angeles Times Bombing and Fire:  Because of anti-union stance of publisher, bridge ironworker unionist, whose union blows up 110 iron works between 1906 and 1911, bombs newspaper building, starting fire—21 (another source said 20) killed, 100 wounded


December 25, 1910, Los Angeles, CaliforniaLlewellyn Iron Works Bombing:  Typographer unionist blows up building of workers on strike—0 killed, 1 wounded


January 9-13, 1911, Somerset, KentuckySomerset Railroad Sniper Attacks:  When company refuses demand of European-American firemen to fire African-American firemen, the European-American firemen go on strike, and snipers kill nine African-American firemen and two detectives on railroad cars over four days—11 killed, 0 wounded [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


February, 1911, Holtville, CaliforniaSpokane Free Speech Fight continued:  Henry Bordet dies of injuries sustained in Spokane Free Speech Fight—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


October 3, 1911, McComb, MississippiIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911:  In first act of violence in Illinois Central shopmen's strike of 1911, which lasts for four years and inspires Joe Hill to write his song, "Casey JonesThe Union Scab," train full of strikebreakers exchanges gunfire and brick-throwing with 100 strikers when train pulls into station—0 killed, X wounded


October 3, 1911, Cairo, IllinoisIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Striking switchman killed by strikebreaker—1 killed, 0 wounded


October 3, 1911, Houston, TexasIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Southern Pacific guard is killed, perhaps by friendly fire by other strikebreakers—1 killed, X wounded


October 4, 1911, Houston, TexasIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Strikebreaker is killed—1 killed, X wounded


October 4, 1911, McComb, MississippiIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Striker killed by  friendly fire from other strikers—1 killed, X wounded


November 25, 1911, Bakersfield, CaliforniaIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Striker shot by strikebreaker in saloon fight—1 killed, X wounded


December 5, 1911, Salt Lake City, UtahIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Striking carman shot by two Italian strikebreakers, who are later acquitted of murder—1 killed, X wounded


December 16, 1911, Houston, TexasIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Non-striking shop worker shot while feeding his cats—1 killed, X wounded


1912-1913, area about Paint Creek and Cabin Creek, West VirginiaWest Virginia Mine War of 1912-1913 (Not Covered Below):  Estimate of total number killed is 50—and contemporary banker Fred Stanton estimates violence cost $100,000,000—minus our numbers of killed given below for Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Strike and Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Strike at Mucklow—33 more killed, X more wounded


1912, San Diego, CaliforniaSan Diego Free Speech Fight:  IWW union resists local ordinances passed to prevent them from speaking in public by flooding area with new speakers every time one is arrested, but conditions in jail decline through overcrowding, and police beat 63-year-old man to death on March 28, and IWW unionist on May 7, and vigilantes break man's leg in gauntlet of ax handles, and torture famous activist Ben Reitman with burning, tar and sage brush, sodomy with cane, and gauntlet of kicking (and kill baby with high pressure water hose [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz])—3 killed, 2 wounded


January 17, 1912, McComb, MississippiIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Five African-American strikebreakers are fired upon—3 killed, 2 wounded


January 25, 1912, Mojave, CaliforniaIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Striking car inspector shot, and though several guards are arrested, none are charged—1 killed, 0 wounded


January 29, 1912, Lawrence, MassachusettsDeath of Anna LoPizzo:  Local police fire on striking textile workers, striking woman who subsequently becomes symbol of ordinary harshness of life and death for immigrant workers, and then falsely blame her death on strike leaders, three miles away at time, whom prosecutors call “social vultures” and “labor bastards” but never formally accuse of the murder for which they are arrested and jailed for eight months—1 killed, 1 wounded


January 30, 1912, Spokane, WashingtonIWW Death of John Ramey:  Striking textile worker dies after having been bayoneted in back on January 15 by militiaman—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


February 24, 1912, Lawrence, MassachusettsLawrence “Bread And Roses” Textile Strike:  Named after poem by James Oppenheim, after court sentences 36 strikers, protesting against, among other things, inadequate company medical care killing 36% of workers by age twenty-five and 50% of workers’ children by age six, to one year in jail just for breaking windows, judge stating that only way to teach them is by severest sentences, though man who had planted dynamite to frame strikers is only fined and released, and company owner who likely had paid him is not investigated or charged at all, local police club multinational women and children, led by “Mother” Mary Harris Jones, “the most dangerous woman in America,” and, along with Paterson Silk Strike of 1913, organized by radical IWW union that Jones had helped found, attracting attention of First Lady Helen Taft, and through her President Taft, forcing companies to capitulate to strikers’ demands—0 killed, X wounded


March 18, 1912, San Antonio, TexasIllinois Central Shopmen's Strike of 1911 continued:  Locomotive boiler explodes in suspected sabotage—30 killed, X wounded


July 7, 1912, Merryville, LouisianaGrabow Riot:  In parish later carried by socialist candidate Eugene Debs’ bid for U.S. Presidency, who receives 913,693 nationwide votes even though he is thrown in jail by his incumbent opponent in that race, President Woodrow Wilson, for exercising his First Amendment right to speak out against WWI, and whose vice-presidential candidate quips that people did not throw eggs at them any more because eggs had become too expensive, owners, family, and friends of a small lumber mill fire on striking workers, who fire back, but owners prevail and later destroy strikers’ headquarters and soup kitchen—4 killed, 50 wounded


September 3, 1912, Merryville, Louisiana IWW Death of Phillip “Joe” Ferro:  Innocent bystander shot during continuation of Grabow Riot—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


September 25, 1912, Merryville, Louisiana IWW Death of Charles “Leather Britches” Smith:  Shot by deputy sheriff as fugitive from Grabow Riot—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


October 22, 1912, Lawrence, Massachusetts IWW Death of Jonas Smolskas:  Beaten to death for wearing IWW pin—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


1913-1914, ColoradoColorado Coalfield War (Not Covered Below):  Colorado government report lists total number of killed in all skirmishes at 69, but corresponding report from Rockefeller company lists 199, minus numbers of killed given below for Ludlow Massacre, Assassination of Louis Tikas, and Revenge for Assassination of Louis Tikas—147 more killed, X more wounded


February, 1913, Paint Creek, West VirginiaPaint Creek-Cabin Creek Strike:  Mine guards machinegun striking miners’ tents from armored train, “Bull Moose Special,” rolling through their tent colony—1 killed, X wounded


February X, 1913, Mucklow (present Gallagher), West VirginiaPaint Creek-Cabin Creek Strike at Mucklow:  Striking miners attack mine guard encampment in revenge for attack from Bull Moose Special—16 killed, X wounded


April 17, 1913, Paterson, New JerseyPaterson Silk Strike of 1913:  Private guard shoots innocent bystander—1 killed, X wounded


April 24, 1913, Hopedale, MassachusettsDraper Company Strike:  One picketer is killed during strike at automatic loom company—1 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


June 7, 1913, Wilson Creek, WashingtonUnidentified IWW Death at Wilson Creek:  Unidentified man stoned and beaten to death while fighting scabs—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


June 10, 1913, Ipswich, MassachusettsIWW Death of Nicoletta Pantelopoulou:  Innocent bystander shot by police during Hosiery Mill Strike—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


June 11-15, 1913, New Orleans, LouisianaUnited Fruit Company Strike:  Local police fire on striking maritime workers—2 (another source said 1) killed [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz], 2 wounded


July13 (another source said June 29), 1913, Paterson, New JerseyPaterson Silk Strike of 1913 continued:  Strikebreaker shoots striking worker—1 killed, X wounded


August 3, 1913,Wheatland, CaliforniaWheatland Hop Riot:  In attempt to stop unionizing speech by International Workers of the World (IWW) in open field to agricultural workers, who are forced to sleep without covering in fields and drink tainted field water or else pay company for clean water, local police fire on crowd of listening agricultural workers who fight back, killing district attorney, then charge IWW speaker, who was preaching nonviolence when police arrived and started shooting, as well as other innocent IWW leaders in faraway areas of state, with district attorney's murder, though incident actually leads to improved conditions for agricultural workers throughout nation—4 killed, X wounded


Late August, 1913, Seeberville, MichiganSeeberville Murders:  Hired guards shoot two unarmed striking miners for trespassing—2 killed, 0 wounded


October 4, 1913, Missoula, MontanaIWW Death of James Donovan:  Died from wounds sustained on picket line when shot by scab on June 17th—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


October 23, 1913, Calumet, MichiganParade at Calumet—Striking miners in parade armed with clubs battle with deputies—0 killed, 2 wounded


November, 1913, Indianapolis, IndianaIndianapolis Streetcar Strike of 1913—Strike breaks out in riots that are so violent that police refuse to intervene, so governor calls in National Guard, who remain in place till angry crowd surrounds Indiana Statehouse demanding that military leave and strikers needs be addressed, resulting in new state minimum wage, maximum hours, and worker safety laws, and sheriff resigns after forced by mayor to accept back mutinous police officers, and mayor resigns after threatened by city council with impeachment for supporting police mutiny—6 killed, X wounded


December 7, 1913, Painesdale, MichiganPainesdale Murders:  Striking miners shoot indiscriminately into boarding house used by strikebreakers, accidentally also hitting an adjacent house where a 13-year-old girl is wounded—3 killed, 1 wounded


December 24, 1913, Calumet, MichiganItalian Hall Disaster:  Commemorated in song by Woody Guthrie, after weeks of property damage and non-lethal fighting between striking copper miners and national guard troops brought in by mine owners, as well as related lethal fighting at Seeberville and Painesdale, unknown assailant(s), popularly believed to be company agent(s), starts stampede by locking doors and shouting “fire” at striking workers’ Christmas party—73 killed (including 59 children), X wounded


December 25, 1913, Los Angeles, CaliforniaIWW Death of Rafael Adames:  Shot by police breaking up meeting of unemployed—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


December 26, 1913, Calumet, MichiganAttack on Charles Moyer:  After president of Western Federation of Miners blames company-backed Citizens Alliance for Italian Hall Disaster, Alliance shoots him in back and deports him, and though he lives and returns to sue his attackers, they are acquitted—0 killed, 1 wounded


December 30, 1913, Clinton, IllinoisIllinois Central shopmen's strike of 1911 continued:  Railroad official is lured into station and assaulted by strikebreaker but manages to shoot him—1 killed, 0 wounded


January 21, 1914, Trinidad, ColoradoTrampling of Women at Trinidad:  When women and children protesting arrest of 77-year-old Mother Jones—who in her lifetime spends more time in jail and in more places than any other worker activist, even being threatened with execution, although all she ever did was talk, by West Virginia military tribunal (same state that exonerates clear murderers of Sid Hatfield), but public outcry saves her—ridicule the horsemanship of mounted Colorado militia leader, he orders his mounted troops to trample them down—0 killed, X wounded


April 20, 1914, Ludlow, ColoradoLudlow Massacre:  Guards hired by John D. Rockefeller, in Rockefeller-outfitted train, “Death Special,” machinegun and burn strikers’ tents with striking mine workers’ families still in them, and five decades later this legacy hurts presidential campaign of grandson Nelson Rockefeller, who himself also had authorized Attica Prison Massacre of 1971—19 (another source said 17) killed, X wounded


April 20, 1914, Ludlow, Colorado—Assassination of Louis Tikas:  National guard beats and then shoots captured Greek immigrant labor leader in the back, and then executes two of his associates, and leaves their dead bodies exposed for several days—3 killed, 0 wounded


April 20-30, 1914, ColoradoRevenge for Assassination of Louis Tikas:  Striking miners attack mines with bullets and fire to avenge the Ludlow Massacre and assassination of Louis Tikas—30 killed, X wounded


June 13, 1914, Butte, MontanaButte Miner’s Hall Bombing:  Bosses from Anaconda mine, owned by John D. Rockefeller, whose other mining company just two months earlier slaughters striking miners in Ludlow, Colorado, agitate town residents, with support from national guard, though in some accounts it is miners themselves acting against complacency of their own union, to push mayor out second story window, shoot up mediation meeting, blow up union hall, and overthrow local socialist government—1 killed, 1+ wounded


July 4, 1914, New York City, New YorkLexington Avenue Bombing:  Galleanist bombers intending to kill John D. Rockerfeller in retaliation for, according to historian/philosopher Will Durant, his part in Ludlow Massacre, explode their bomb prematurely—4 killed, 24 wounded


July 12, 1914, Hartford, ArkansasHartford Coal Mine Riot:  After hired guards fire on their homes, striking miners destroy mine equipment with fire and floods, and shoot replacement workers on way to testify before grand jury—2 killed, X wounded


October 3, 1914, Poplar and Wolf Point, MassachusettsIWW Fight to Obtain Food in Montana:  AJ Giantvalley, and two other IWW members 21 miles away, are shot while trying to seize food—3 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


January 15, 1915, Cateret, New JerseyLiebig Fertilizer Strike:  Police open fire on strikers at Williams & Clark Fertilizing Company just because they stop train to check for strikebreakers—5 killed, X wounded


January 25, 1915, Roosevelt, New JerseyRoosevelt Strike Riot:  Following riot at American Agricultural Chemical company, deputies fire on unarmed striking workers—2 killed, 20 (another source said 18) wounded


June, 1915, Arlington, KansasIWW Death of BJ Bradley:  Beaten and strangled while organizing harvest workers—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


July 20-28, 1915, Bayonne, New JerseyBayonne Refinery Strike of 1915:  After police kill striker during riots among striking Polish refinery workers, police, and several hundred women, mob attempts to burn Standard Oil refinery—5 killed, 5 wounded


August 2, 1915, Masenna, New YorkMellon Aluminum Mill Strike:  National Guard bayonets workers who had taken over aluminum mill, killing leader—1 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


October 31, 1915, Salt Lake City, UtahIWW Death of “Doc” Roy Joseph Horton:  Shot by former lawman for street speaking in support of soon-to-be executed Joe Hill [see next entry]—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


November 15, 1915, Salt Lake City, UtahExecution of Joe Hill:  In face of worldwide condemnation, state of Utah on flimsy evidence executes by firing squad singer/songwriter/worker activist, who had been forced to start work at age nine because of occupational death of his father, and portions of whose cremated ashes are mailed to every IWW local except in Utah, per his specific instructions, in envelopes marked "Joe Hill murdered by the capitalist class," and which are scattered to wind on May 1, 1916, except for portion mailed to Columbine, Colorado, which remains unopened until scattered over graves of victims of 1927 Columbine Mine Massacre, and portion confiscated by government in Palmer Raids of 1919-20, but recovered under Freedom Of Information Act in 1980's—1 killed, 0 wounded


January, 1916, East Youngstown, OhioYoungstown Strike of 1916:  When sheet and tube company strikers gather at gate to protest smuggling in of strikebreakers, guards fire into crowd, sparking riot that burns six square blocks of city, which grand jury blame on guards—3 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


February 10, 1916, Chicago, IllinoisPoisoning of George Mundelein’s Guests:  Galleanist assistant chef puts arsenic into food of 100 upper class people at banquet for archbishop—0 killed, 100 wounded


May, 1916, Braddock, PennsylvaniaAborted Carnegie Steel Parade:  Strikers at Carnegie Steel Company gather at gates of plant for prearranged parade, but guards fire on them from inside plant, hitting both strikers and bystanders—2 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


June-September, 1916, Chisolm, MinnesotaMesabi Iron Range Strike of 1916:  In re-run of bloodless Mesabi Iron Range Strike of 1907, striking iron miners, supported by IWW, clash with guards, but this time striker killed on June 26th, and guard and bystander killed on July 3rd—3 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths and IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


July 27, 1916, Redfield, South DakotaIWW Death of Frank Wells:  Shot during a shootout with anti-I.W.W. harvesters—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


July 22, 1916, San Francisco, CaliforniaPreparedness Day Bombing:  Suspected unionist(s) or Galleanist(s) explode(s) bomb at parade celebrating entry of U.S. into WWI to protest “rich man’s war, poor man’s fight,” local court on flimsy evidence sentencing a local union leader to hang for it, even though he had preached against the use of violence and warned that some others might use violence at parade anyway, and even though photograph proved he was nowhere near bomb when it went off, until appeals court exonerates him on evidence of false testimony at his trial, US President Theodore Roosevelt saying of prosecutor who had lied and conspired with head juror to convict union leader unjustly, "anyone assailing [this prosecutor] for prosecuting anarchists should be deprived of citizenship"—10 killed (another source said 6), 40 wounded


August 13, 1916, Monievideo, MinnesotaIWW Death of Henry Burk:  Flying Squad [highly mobile group of union organizers trained for specific emergencies] member shot during an alleged “hi-jack”—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


October 10-13, 1916, Bayonne, New JerseyBayonne Refinery Strike of 1916:  After police shoot workmen charging police lines at Standard Oil Refinery, mob besieges police headquarters and loot liquor stores, resulting in several more shootings, including innocent woman killed while looking out her second story window—4 killed, 34 wounded


October 30, 1916, Everett, WashingtonVigilante Gauntlet at Everett:  Local vigilantes force IWW speakers at mill strike to run gauntlet of whipping, tripping, kicking, and impaling on spiked cattle guard—0 killed, X wounded


November 5, 1916, Everett, WashingtonEverett Massacre:  200 citizen deputies fire on ship attempting to dock and debark IWW activists with such violence that ship's wheelhouse alone is pierced with 175 bullet holes, nearly killing ship's captain, who hid behind heavy metal safe, eventhough activists were only trying to exercise their American right to freedom of speech, and activists firing back to protect themselves are charged with murder, eventhough deputies who died might just as easily have been hit from friendly crossfire coming from another boat in harbor—7 killed, 47 wounded


1917, Sapula, OklahomaIWW Death of “IWW John”:  Found dead morning after soapbox organizing—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


February 21, 1917, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaDeath of Martinus Petkus:  One striker killed and many beaten in sugar mill strike—1 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths and IWW List Of Killed Members]


March, 1917, Niagara Falls, New YorkIWW Death of Louis Jalleani:  I.W.W. organizer shot by police during a “riot”—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


May to July, 1917, East St. Louis, MissouriEast St. Louis Riots:  Race riot as well as labor dispute, European-American industrial workers for Aluminum Ore Company and American Steel Company, fearing that influx of 2000 rural African-American workers per week threatens jobs and wages, attack African-Americans and Southern Railway Company property, and some African-Americans fight back—152 (another source said 102, and another source said 42) killed, X wounded


May 31, 1917, Riverside, OregonDeath of George W. Shoemaker:  Sheep rancher shoots strike negotiator—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths and IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


June 12, 1917, Virginia, MinnesotaIWW Death of Nick Luona:  Shot in the back by police while being arrested as slacker—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


July 12, 1917, Bisbee, ArizonaBisbee Deportation:  Striking miner (James H. Brew [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]) shoots sheriff deputy, and then is himself shot moments later by other deputies, resisting his part in illegal kidnapping and deportation of 1286 striking miners and their sympathizers from Bisbee, Arizona to Hermanas, New Mexico—where President Woodrow Wilson moves them into temporary shelters in nearby Columbus set up for refugees from Pancho Villa Expedition in Mexico—by posse of 2200 men, possibly largest ever assembled, following model one week earlier of deportation of 67 men from Jerome to Needles, CA, but this time seizing telegraphs and telephones and preventing Western Union and Associated Press from reporting kidnappings, and for months afterward preventing any person not personally approved by Sheriff from entering, or reentering, Bisbee, including former workers, and setting stage for later deportations without trial of suspected radicals to Russia after the Alien Act and Palmer Raids, Japanese to Internment camps during WWII, and millions of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans ongoing—2 killed, 0 wounded


August 1, 1917, Butte, MontanaAssassination of Frank Little:  After future crime writer, but then hired mine guard, Dashiell Hammett, in town he would later call “Poisonville” in his novel “Red Harvest,” turns down company offer of $5000 to perform the deed, local vigilante group with calling card “3-7-77,” representing the dimensions of a gravesite, a group well-know but never charged with the crime, drags, beats, and hangs from a railroad trestle a small, one-eyed worker activist nursing a broken leg, who once was jailed 30 days for publicly reading from Declaration of Independence—1 killed, 0 wounded


August 2-3, 1917, X, OklahomaGreen Corn Rebellion:  Near birthplace of just-murdered worker activist Frank Little, native Americans, at end of their Green Corn Ceremony, unite with local European-American farmers and poor African-Americans, and, spurred on by local unionists, arm themselves and begin long march on Washington, DC to protest war conscription of poor, but local vigilantes stop them—8 killed, X wounded


September 8, 1917, Glencoe, Minnesota Unidentified IWW Death of Man at Glencoe:  Shot during a shootout while “boxcar organizing”—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


September 8, 1917, Hawkinsville, GeorgiaIWW Deaths of Mr and Mrs Thomas Simons:  Killed during a draft resistance fight—2 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


October 4, 1917, Butte, MontanaIWW Death of Verner Nelson:  Shot twice in the chest for calling a scab a “scab”—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


November 24, 1917, Milwaukee, WisconsinAttempted Assassination of August Giuliana:  Galleanist bomber(s) intending to kill evangelist kill(s) local policemen instead—10 killed, X wounded


April 30, 1918, Centralia, WashingtonCentralia Red Cross Parade:  Men break off from parade to destroy IWW union hall along parade route and beat its inhabitants, possibly assisted by thugs paid by lumber companies where IWW was organizing—0 killed, X wounded


November 28, 1917, Red Lodge, MontanaIWW Death of Kaisa Kreeta Jackson:  Innocent bystander shot during harassment of IWW members—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


February 18, 1918, Hillsboro, IllinoisIWW Death of Lyle Clifford Donaldson:  Shot when mistaken for an I.W.W. by vigilantes—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


April 16, 1918, Old Forge, PennsylvaniaIWW Death of Pasquale Marsico:  Shot while collecting for the I.W.W. Defense Fund—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


September 7, 1918, Isabella, CaliforniaIWW Death of Fred Warn:  Shot in the head for belonging to the I.W.W.—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


September 7, 1918, Isabella, CaliforniaIWW Death of Fred Warn:  Shot in the head for belonging to the I.W.W.—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


February 27 (or 28), 1919, Taunton (or Franklin), MassachusettsAmerican Wool Company Bombing:  Galleanist bombers, acting on February 1919 Galleanist flyer entitled “Go-Head” calling for renewed bombing campaign, explode their bomb at wool workers’ strike prematurely, killing the bombers—4 killed, 0 wounded


April 15, 1919, Boston, MassachusettsBoston Telephone Strike of 1919:  Female telephone operators and their male sympathizers, striking against lower pay for women, beat up students from Harvard and MIT brought in as strikebreakers, and local food service unionists refuse to serve them—0 killed, X wounded.


April 29, 1919, Sandersville, GeorgiaAttempted Assassination of Thomas Hardwick:  Along with delivery of flyer entitled “Plain Words” that begins, “War, class war . . .,” Galleanist bomber(s) intending to kill U.S. Senator blow(s) hands off housekeeper instead—0 killed, 1 wounded


May 1, 1919, Cleveland, OhioMay Day Riots of 1919:  May Day marchers fight against United States Liberty (war) Bond workers—2 killed, 40 wounded


June 2, 1919, Washington, DCAttempted Assassination of A. Mitchell Palmer:  Along with delivery of Plain Words flyer, Galleanist bomber(s) blow(s) up U.S. Attorney General’s house, killing bomber and leading to crackdown on illegal immigration known as “Palmer Raids” —1 killed, 0 wounded


June 2, 1919, New York City, New YorkWounding of Jacob Isler:  Local IWW president shoots local policeman in arm during raid on his IWW hall—0 killed, 1 wounded


June 3, 1919, New York City, New YorkAttempted Assassination of Charles Nott:  Along with delivery of Plain Words flyer, Galleanist bomber(s) intending to kill judge kill(s) nightwatchman instead—1 killed, 0 wounded


August 26, 1919, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaAssassination of Fannie Sellins:  Hired guards, well-known but acquitted anyway, shoot unarmed female worker activist, once released from prison by intervention of US President Woodrow Wilson, and who once described her job as distributing "clothing and food to starving women and babies, to assist poverty stricken mothers and bring children into the world, and to minister to the sick and close the eyes of the dying," because she intervenes to protect male striker from guards' beating, though he dies anyway, and then those guards mock her dead body—2 killed 0 wounded


 September 9-11, 1919, Boston, MassachusettsBoston Police Strike:  Called “deserters” and “agents of Lenin,” police officers go on strike, so then-Governor and next-President Calvin Coolidge sends in state guards to restore order, who use heavy-handed military tactics to put down crime and clash with striking officers, and police commissioner resolves strike by hiring all new officers under exact pay and working conditions demanded by old officers—9 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


September 21, 1919 to January 8, 1920, locales in Colorado, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West VirginiaSteel Strike of 1919:  Multi-state strike of steel mills leaves 18 strikers killed, hundreds wounded, and thousands jailed—18 killed, 200+ wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


September 30 - October 1, 1919, Elaine, ArkansasElaine Massacre:  Representatives from Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America meet in church to organize mostly African-American sharecroppers against mostly European-American farm owners, but owners confronting union are killed and locals from all around join in what becomes race riot—242 (other sources say 105) killed, X wounded


November 11, 1919, Centralia, WashingtonCentralia Massacre:  American Legionnaires marching in parade celebrating first anniversary of Armistice Day, led by local football hero and veteran of anti-Bolshevik wars in Russia, along with professional thugs hired by president of Eastern Railway & Lumber Company, in what IWW members consider to be town-wide conspiracy, detour into IWW union hall along parade route to wreak havoc as in Centralia Red Cross Parade a year earlier, but this time IWW members fight back, and afterward one of their jailed members is lynched, though local officials excuse his murder as "suicide"—6 killed (including imprisoned IWW man lynched), 5 wounded


November 22, 1919 Bogalusa, LABogalusa Massacre:  Gunmen hired by Great Southern Lumber Company fire indiscriminately on International Union of Timber Workers union hall and kill men at doorways, including man exiting back doorway with his hands raised—4 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


April 22, 1920, Butte, MontanaIWW Death of Hugh B. Haran:  Accidentally shot while guarding the Daily Bulletin (IWW periodical) office—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


April 21, 1920, Butte, MontanaAnaconda Road Massacre:  Deputized mine guards, well-known but acquitted anyway, employed by John D. Rockefeller, whose mining companies in 1914 slaughter striking miners at Ludlow, Colorado and blow up Miners’ Hall in Butte, Montana, shoot fleeing strikers in back—2 (IWW List Of Killed Members, other sources say 1) killed, 16 wounded


May 3, 1920, Washington, DCSuicide or Murder of Andrea Salsedo:  Captured Galleanist pamphleteer falls to his death from window on 14th floor of Department of Justice building, after having either jumped out on his own or been pushed out by fellow captured Galleanist—1 killed, 0 wounded


May 19, 1920, Matewan, West VirginiaMatewan Massacre:  Sheriff Sid Hatfield and his deputized striking mineworkers, confronting hired guards newly arrived to evict striking mineworkers’ families from their company-owned homes, get upper hand in ensuing gunfight against those whose guns lie still buried in their luggage—10 killed, X wounded


June, 1920, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia Longshoreman’s Strike:  IWW members Stanley Pavzlack and G. Stain shot by scabs on 10th and 27th respectively, and two innocent bystanders shot by scabs on other dates in June—4 killed, X wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


August 5, 1920, Denver, ColoradoDenver Streetcar Strike of 1920:  Violent mobs of strikers, one 2000 members strong, attack Denver Post building, Tramway Building, and Union Station, and fight with police—2 killed, 33 wounded


August 6, 1920, Denver, ColoradoDenver Streetcar Strike of 1920 continued:  After Denver mayor declares police force, of whom one-third are wounded, is not enough to keep order, and deputizes 2000 citizens, violence continues as strikebreakers fire into crowd—5 killed, 25 wounded


August 5-6, 1920, Denver, ColoradoDenver Streetcar Strike of 1920 continued:  Further undefined woundings—0 killed, 22 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


September 6, 1920, New York City, New YorkWall Street Bombing:  Suspected Galleanist(s) blow(s) up financial institutions reputedly in retaliation for indictments of Ferdinand Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti—38 killed, 400 wounded


September 7, 1920, to February, 1921, Walker County, Alabama1920 Alabama Coal Strike:  Violence, with some overtones of racial orientation, occurs on both sides in coal workers strike, including murder of company general manager and dynamiting of thirteen houses for strikebreakers—16 killed, X wounded


October 2, 1920, Hannaford, North DakotaDeath of Joe Bagley:  Special agent of Great Northern Railway shoots IWW member—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


December 22, 1920, Nauvoo, AlabamaDeaths of Adrian Northcutt and Willie Baird:  State guard murders Nazarene minister who also serves as union official, and when his son-in-law avenges his death by killing soldier who murdered him, state guard lynches him in prison—3 killed, 0 wounded


February 19, 1921, Jasper County, GeorgiaJasper County Murders:  Harking back to era of violence against slaves, plantation owner and farmhand kill peons, men imprisoned by local government on trumped-up charges and then let out as slaves to local businesses, to silence their potentially incriminating testimony against them—11 killed, 0 wounded


August 1, 1921, McDowell County, West VirginiaAssassination of Sid Hatfield:  Hired guards, relatives of those killed in Matewan Massacre, well-known but, on grounds of “self-defense,” acquitted anyway, ambush unarmed sheriff and his deputy, already acquitted for their part in Matewan Massacre, but implicated in union "shooting up" of Mohawk coal camp in McDowell County, while walking up courthouse steps to stand trial for that other incident—2 killed, 0 wounded


August 27, 1921, Sharples, West VirginiaAttack At Sharples:  Thousands of miners enraged over acquittal of Sid Hatfield’s murderers march to Logan County to unionize it, and though Mother Jones almost persuades them to turn back, Logan County Sheriff’s deputies shooting union sympathizers persuades miners to continue on—2 killed, X wounded


August 31, 1921, Blair Mountain, West VirginiaAttack by James Wilburn:  After miners marching to Logan County in rage over acquittal of Sid Hatfield’s murderers (and now also attack on miners’ sympathizers at Sharples) meet battle lines drawn by county sheriff at Blair Mountain, armed miners organized by local Baptist minister fire first shots of three-day battle, and though Wilburn and one of his sons are convicted of murder of sheriffs deputies, they serve only three of their eleven year sentences before being pardoned by West Virginia Governor—4 killed, X wounded


August 31 to September 2, 1921, Blair Mountain, West VirginiaBattle of Blair Mountain:  In retaliation for acquittal of Sid Hatfield’s murderers, around 10,000 union miners march to Logan County, ostensibly to “unionize” it, but instead shoot out with around 3000 citizens, some from professional class, deputized and armed, some with automatic weapons, by Logan County Sheriff to prevent miners from entering that county, both sides together firing off total of around one million rounds, as either US Air Force or sheriff’s deputies drop bombs on miners from airplanes, US Air Force certainly at least providing aerial surveillance, one of unexploded bombs being used in court to exonerate union leader Bill Blizzard, charged with treason because of his leadership role in that shoot out, in the very same building where anti-slavery activist John Brown had been convicted of treason 62 years earlier—80-130 killed (another source could document only 16, adding that miners vowed never to speak openly about the conflict for fear of being prosecuted), X wounded


January 14, 1922, Oklahoma City, OklahomaAmalgamated Meat Cutters Second Strike:  Striking meat workers lynch one African-American strikebreaker—1 killed, 0 wounded


February, 1922, Fort Worth, TexasAmalgamated Meat Cutters Second Strike continued:  Ku Klux Klan, in support of striking meat workers, kidnap one African-American strikebreaker from hospital and lynch him in stockyard—1 killed, 0 wounded


June 16, 1922, Cherokee, OklahomaIWW Death of Paul Bernarcek (Bednartik):  Shot during confrontation with fink—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


June 21, 1922, Herrin, IllinoisHerrin Massacre:  After shootout with hired guards, victorious striking miners, well-known but acquitted anyway, capture, torture, and kill unarmed strikebreakers, their fellow workers really, ending with free-range “turkey shoot”—36 (another source said 23) killed, X wounded


August 22, 1922, Buffalo, New YorkBuffalo Streetcar Strike:  Police officer fires randomly into crowd of protestors, and during melee someone sprays motorman with acid—1 killed, 4 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


January 16, 1923, Harrison, Arkansas Harrison Railroad Riot:  After railroad bridge burnings by striking railroad workers, outraged citizen vigilantes unite with KKK to confront strikers, and jail one striker who is blamed for shooting one vigilante, though in fact he had been shot by another vigilante, and next morning vigilantes drag striker from his cell and hang him on railroad bridge, and other strikers are dragged from their houses and whipped—1 killed, 1+ wounded


May, 1923, Feather River, California Unidentified IWW Death at Feather River:  Wounded mill picket run over by train—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


May 3, 1923, Aberdeen, WashingtonIWW Death of William J. McKay:  Shot in back by mill watchman while on picket line—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


June 14, 1923, San Pedro, CaliforniaLiberty Hill Strike:  Weeks after Upton Sinclair, Pulitzer-Prize-winning author and founding member of Southern California chapter of ACLU, which was founded specifically to help this strike, is arrested for publicly reading from U.S. Constitution, arresting officer quipping “we’ll have none of that Constitution stuff,” under California's criminal syndicalism law, which later is declared to be unconstitutional, KKK raids IWW hall, beating men, women, and children, one woman later dying of her injuries, and scalding two children with coffee, and leads some IWW men away to wilderness area to be stripped, tarred, and feathered—1 killed, 2+ wounded


September 9, 1924, Hanapepe, HawaiiHanapepe Massacre:  Local police fire on Filipino-Hawaiian sugar workers striking for $2 per day wage increase in same year that nonworking company owners average 17% dividends, after strikers abduct two strikebreakers, because all laws allowing workers to strike peacefully had been struck down by contemporary legislators, but strikers respond with knives—20 killed, X wounded


March 2-3, 1926, Passaic, New Jersey1926 Passaic Textile Strike:  Local police stop crowd of pickets, then ride their horse and motorcycles into them, clubbing them and firing tear gas canisters at them, and then club cameramen recording police violence and destroy their cameras—0 killed, X wounded


August 23, 1927, Charleston, MassachusettsExecution of Ferdinando Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti:  U.S. Judge Webster Thayer, denying defense motions and calling defendants “anarchist bastards” and “Bolsheviks” whom he would “get good and proper,” has two Galleanists executed on flimsy evidence for their supposed involvement in murder, igniting violent protests around world, including, after Vanzetti's appeal to fellow Galleanists for retaliation, bomb attacks on officials associated with trial, including Thaver himself—2 killed, 0 wounded


November 21, 1927, Serene, ColoradoColumbine Mine Massacre:  Commemorated in media portrayal of charismatic young female labor leader “Flaming Milka,” whose wrist is broken by mounted guard dragging her behind his horse, state police and mine guards fire on strikers armed only with clubs, knives, and rocks, guards possibly using machinegun, as American flag carried by one of those killed receives 17 bullet holes—6 killed, 12 wounded


November, 1927 (another source says January 12, 1928), Walsenburg, ColoradoColumbine Mine Massacre at Walsenburg:  Local police attack local townspeople for their sympathy with striking Columbine miners—2 killed, X wounded


June 7, 1929, Gastonia, North CarolinaLoray Mill Strike:  Commemorated in so-called “Gastonia” novels by at least six authors including Sherwood Anderson, strikers guarding their tent colony shoot out with local police, after they had approached and demanded that strikers surrender their weapons, killing police chief—1 killed, 4+ wounded


September 14, 1929, Gastonia, North CarolinaDeath of Ella Mae Wiggins:  After judge declares mistrial in shooting death of local police chief at hands of striking mill workers, because juror goes insane from viewing bloody evidence, local vigilantes, well-known but acquitted anyway, chase down and fire on strikers in truck, all of whom also are eventually fully pardoned, including union head who had fled to Soviet Union but returned, killing unarmed and pregnant songwriter/striker who had lost four of nine children to inadequate medical care in company town—1 killed, 0 wounded


October 2, 1929, Marion, North CarolinaMarion Textile Strike:  Sheriff and deputies open fire on picket line of striking textile workers, hitting most in their backs—6 killed, 17 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]

March 6, 1930, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaH.C. Aberle Mill Strike:  Pitched gunfight erupts between hosiery company employees and hosiery workers union and their sympathizers—1 killed, 3 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


February 24, 1931, Stroudsburg, PennsylvaniaMammoth Mills Strike:  Former striker returning to work shoots hosiery company employees—1 killed, 2 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


May 5, 1931, Evarts, KentuckyBattle of Evarts:  Commemorated in song “Which Side Are You On?” made popular by singer Hazel Dickens and others, after writers Theodore Dreiser, Sherwood Anderson, and John Dos Passos are evicted from “Bloody” Harlan County for trying to help striking miners there, employer activists in cars shoot out with striking miners along roadside—4 killed (another source said 2), X wounded


September 1, 1931, Greenville, South CarolinaAttack on Clara Holden:  Local vigilantes abduct and whip National Textile Workers Union organizer—0 killed, 1 wounded


September 21, 1931, Tipton, IowaIowa Cow War:  Sixty-five police officers escort two veterinarians to farm to test cows fro tuberculosis, but they are met by 400 farmers protesting tests because they cause abortions and lower quality of milk, and "violence flares"—0 killed, X wounded


March 7, 1932, Dearborn, MichiganFord Hunger March Massacre:  Starving strikers are escorted by Detroit police to borders of American Fascist Henry Ford’s company town of Dearborn, where richest man in world, devotee of Adolph Hitler and only American mentioned in Hitler's Mein Kampf, orders his town’s company police to fire on them, 70,000 outraged citizens participating in their funeral procession, and sprinkling some of the dead’s ashes over the Ford Auto assembly plant where they were killed, where workers also are deprived even of their basic human need to converse with each other, lest it slow down production—5 killed, 24+ wounded


July 28, 1932, Washington, District of ColumbiaEviction of Bonus Army:  After local police fail to evict from federal land army veterans in tents demonstrating for Senate passage of bill already passed by House allowing early payment of military bonuses, army “hero” General Douglas MacArthur turns his troops’ bayonets and gas against his former charges, to cries of “shame, shame” from federal employees lining the streets—4+ killed, 1017 (another source said 200) wounded


September 27, 1932, Worcester, MassachusettsAttempted Assassination of Webster Thayer:  In response to Bartolomeo Vanzetti’s written plea for vengeance, Galleanist bomber(s) intending to kill judge in Vanzatti’s trial wound(s) wife and housekeeper instead, but succeeds in sending judge into hiding—0 killed, 2 wounded


February, 1933, Appleton, Wisconsin1933 Wisconsin Milk Strike at Appleton:  Guards throw horseshoes at 100 pickets—0 killed, X wounded


May 16, 1933, Racine County, Wisconsin1933 Wisconsin Milk Strike in Racine County:  Guardsman shoots two teenagers for not stopping their vehicle—1 killed, 1 wounded


May 18, 1933, between Saukville and Grafton, Wisconsin1933 Wisconsin Milk Strike between Saukville and Grafton:  Milk delivery driver killed after leaving picket road block—1 killed, 0 wounded


October 5, 1933, Ambridge, PennsylvaniaSpang-Chalfant Seamless Tube Mill Strike:  Private deputies fire on picket line—1 killed, 20 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


October 8, 1933, Woodville, CaliforniaPixley Cotton Strike at Woodville:  Local vigilantes try unsuccessfully to reach speakers at union rally, breaking rancher’s arm—0 killed, 1+ wounded


October 10, 1933, Pixley, CaliforniaPixley Cotton Strike:  Serving as basis for Nobel Prize winning author John Steinbeck’s novel, “In Dubious Battle,” local growers, well-known but acquitted anyway, hide behind trucks and fire on unarmed strikers as well as Mexican consular representative, who advances with arms raised but is shot and killed, in full view of police having just arrested 19 other strikers—4 (another source said 2) killed, 9-18 wounded


October 10, 1933, Arvin, CaliforniaPixley Cotton Strike at Arvin:  Growers blow arm off unarmed 19-year-old striker—0 killed, 1+ wounded


October 19, 1933, Springfield, IllinoisShooting of Progressive Miner:  Official from United Mine Workers union shoots member of Progressive Miners of America union in protest march—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


October 28, 1933, Burke, Wisconsin1933 Wisconsin Milk Strike at Burke:  Unaffiliated citizen, upset that strikers had broken his headlamp, shoots random farmer on picket line—1 killed, 0 wounded


April, 1934, Lakeland, FloridaKKK Abducts Citrus Worker Unionist:  KKK abducts citrus worker union organizer who is never heard from again—1 killed, 0 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


May 15, 1934, Wilmington, California1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike at Wilmington:  Hired guards shoot strikers charging tent where strikebreakers live—2 (another source said 1, and that location is San Pedro, and that instead of tent it is ship) killed, X wounded


May 23-28, 1934, Toledo, OhioBattle of Toledo:  National guard shoots, bayonets, and teargasess 6,000 striking Electric Auto-Lite Company workers and their sympathizers armed only with bricks and bottles, but further violence is averted by President Roosevelt sending former President Taft's son to mediate between sides—2 killed, 200 wounded


June 30, 1934, Seattle, Washington1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike at Seattle:  Strikers hearing that scabs are planning to take ship out of port try to stop them, but are ambushed by guards who shoot at least one in back, who dies—1 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


July 5, 1934, San Francisco, CaliforniaBloody Thursday (1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike at San Francisco):  Local police suppress dockworkers strike, which becomes general strike, U.S. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins persuading U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt to ignore state and local officials pleadings for federal troops to quell it, and when Perkins later refuses to deport head of West Coast Longshoreman’s Union, House Committee on Un-American Activities unsuccessfully brings impeachment resolution against her—2 killed, X wounded


July 27, 1934, Sheboygan, WisconsinKohler Strike of 1934:  Private deputies fire on striking steel and iron factory workers with guns and teargas—2 killed, 47 wounded


Late July, 1934, Minneapolis, MinnesotaMinneapolis Teamsters Strike:  Striking transportation workers and their supporters, including many women, fight to prevent produce from being delivered to city market—4 killed, 200 wounded


August-September, 1934, Trion, GeorgiaTextile Worker’s Strike of 1934 at Trion:  In first outbreak of violence in what was then largest strike in U.S. history, which was organized by workers at grass-roots level before even their own union knew about it, newly hired guards shoot out with striking textile workers—2 (another source said 1) killed, X wounded


August 20, 1934, Portland, OregonLongshoremen Shoot Replacement Workers:  Striking longshoremen kill replacement worker and wound another, in series of attacks including firing upon visiting US Senator from New York—1 killed, 1 wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


September 2, 1934, Augusta, GeorgiaTextile Worker’s Strike of 1934 at Augusta:  Newly hired guards attack striking textile workers—2 killed, X wounded


September 6, 1934, Honea Path, South CarolinaTextile Worker’s Strike of 1934 at Honea Path:  After Governor Blackwood gives “shoot to kill” orders, national guard and hired guards attack striking textile workers, shooting most of them in the back—7 (another source said 6) killed, 30 wounded (another source said 20)


September 11, 1934, Saylesville, Rhode IslandTextile Worker’s Strike of 1934 at Saylesville:  When Roosevelt administration ignores Governor Green’s request for federal troops, national guard and hired guards armed with machine guns fight against strikers armed only with rocks, flower pots, and broken headstones from local cemetery—2 (another source said 1) killed, 4+ wounded  [Thank you, Professor Scott Molloy]


September 12, 1934, Woonsocket, Rhode IslandTextile Worker’s Strike of 1934 at Woonsocket:  National guard fires into crowd of strikers attempting to storm rayon plant—3 (another source said 2, and another source said 1) killed, 15 wounded  [Thank you, Professor Scott Molloy]


June 19, 1935, Union, South CarolinaMonarch Mills Strike:  During textile workers strike at Monarch Mills, lunchtime fight becomes full-blown riot in which constable shoots overseer, and then is himself shot by someone else—2 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


June 21, 1935, Humboldt County, CaliforniaPacific Northwest Lumber Strike:  Three union lumber workers killed in fight with police and strikebreakers, and three days later in Tacoma, WA, unknown number of wounded when guardsmen attack 2000 union lumber workers barring entrance of strikebreakers into plant—3 killed, X wounded


August 7, 1935, Dallas, TexasDallas Public Spanking:  Rioting female garment union strikers publicly strip and spank female non-union garment workers, and then scuffle with police—0 killed, 6 wounded


September 4, 1935, San Pedro, CaliforniaIWW Death of Arthur G. Ross:  Died from head injuries from vigilante—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


November 30, 1935, Tampa, FloridaDeath of Joseph A. Shoemaker:  Police arrest five union leaders from cigar industry without warrant, cigar industry moguls posting bail for policeman charged with false arrest, and turn three of union leaders over to KKK, who torture one of them to death over nine days—1 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


1936, Pierce, Idaho3 IWW Deaths from Pierce, Idaho Ambush:  Conrad Hill died May 30, 1937, in Lewiston, Idaho, from injuries sustained in 1936 ambush in Pierce, Idaho; Mike Stetz died June 8, 1937 in Orofino, Idaho; and Dalton Lee Gentry died November 4, 1940 in Monroe, Lousiana—3 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


April 10, 1936, Wilkes-Barre, PennsylvaniaGood Friday Bombings:  Former coal miner, apparently disgruntled by miners union handling of certain workers issues, mails bombs in cigar boxes to former president of union, coal official, former Wilkes-Barre sheriff, Hanover Township school director and sexton, Luzerne County judge, and mediator of Anthracite Conciliation Board—3 killed, 2 wounded


Fall, 1936, USA1936 International Seaman's Union Strike:  Total of 28 seaman die in nationwide strike, including three mentioned just below—25 killed, X wounded


November 29, 1936, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaIWW Death of Blackie Hyman:  Killed during waterfront solidarity strike—1 killed, 0 wounded [IWW List Of Killed Members—Thank you, DJ Alperovitz]


December 4, 1936, Houston, TexasGalveston Bay Dock Wars, 1936-7:  Strikers attack corrupt member of International Seaman's Union, who shoots one striker, and then strikers beat him nearly to death—1 killed, 1 wounded


December 9, 1936, Houston, TexasGalveston Bay Dock Wars, 1936-7, continued:  Strikers from International Seaman's Union attack scabs outside bar, and ensuing scuffle sends eight to hospital, one of whom dies five days later—1 killed, 7 wounded


April 23, 1937, Stockton, CaliforniaStockton Cannery Strike of 1937:  Violence breaks out as strikebound canneries reopen, resulting in one death and more than fifty serious injuries—1 killed, 50 wounded


May 26, 1937, Detroit, MichiganBattle of the Overpass:  Ford Auto Company hired guards severely beat union organizers, including Philip Reuther, captured in widely published photos that the guards had tried but failed to confiscate—0 killed, X wounded


May 30, 1937, Chicago, IllinoisMemorial Day Massacre:  Local police beat and fire on unarmed striking steel workers, one policeman telling one female striker, "get off the field or I'll put a bullet in your back," yet no police were ever prosecuted—10 killed, 140 (another source said 30) wounded


June 19, 1937, Youngstown, OhioWomen's Day Massacre:  City police captain demands women and children leave picket line demanding recognition of steel union, and when they refuse, fires tear gas, which wounds infant, so union men gather to fight against deputies, and when one of unionists is shot to death, whole town converges to shoot out with police—16 killed, 283 wounded


June 28, 1937, Beaver Falls, PennsylvaniaMoltrup Steel Products Strike:  Sheriffs deputies fighting with picketers trying to prevent night shift from entering plant kill one man with tear gas shell—1 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


July 9, 1937, Alcoa, TennesseeAlcoa Aluminum Strike:  Gunfire erupts when picketers try to stop truck from entering aluminum plant guarded by local police, killing one picketer and one police officer—2 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


July 11, 1937, Massillon, OhioAttack on Massillon Union Hall:  Local police destroy steel union hall—2 killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


February 10, 1938, Chicago, IllinoisDeath of Lloyd Rourke:  Picketer using baseball bat kills independent laundry man when he crosses Fairfax Hotel picket line to make delivery—1 killed, 0 wounded


August 1, 1938, Hilo, HawaiiHilo Massacre:  Local police fire on unarmed and non-violent striking longshoremen and warehousemen with non-lethal birdshot—0 killed, 50 wounded


September 9, 1938, Hatboro, PennsylvaniaDeath of Raymond Cooke:  Police chief shoots Oscar Nebel Hosiery Company striker—1 killed, X wounded


March, 1959, Letcher and Hazard Counties, KentuckyUnited Mine Workers Strike of 1959:  Gunfire erupts as picketers try to blow up or burn loading ramps—3+ killed, X wounded  [Wikipedia list of workers deaths]


1932-1945, Washington, DCNEW DEAL LEGISLATION:  PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT HIRES LABOR LEADERS—NEW DEAL LEGISLATION:  SECRETARY OF LABOR FRANCES PERKINS, who campaigned for workers’ rights after witnessing workers killed by neglectful owners in Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, UNDER THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT, and with the help of other worker activists hired by Roosevelt, such as National Recovery Administration leader John Cox, Catholic priest who lead “Cox’s Army” that marched on DC to support unemployed workers, with help of free gasoline from Gulf Stations owner Andrew Mellon, who was fired from his position as President Herbert Hoover’s Secretary of Treasury for his sympathy with marchers—ENDS MAJOR VIOLENCE BY AND AGAINST WORKERS AND THEIR SYMPATHIZERS BY LEGISLATING WORKERS’ RIGHTS, including a forty-hour work week, a minimum wage, worker’s compensation, unemployment compensation, employee safety provisions, a federal law banning child labor, direct federal aid for unemployment relief, Social Security, a revitalized public employment service, and health insurance


April 20, 1948, Detroit, MichiganAttempted Assassination of Walter Reuther:  Shotgun blast through window permanently cripples labor leader’s hand—0 killed, 1 wounded


May 24, 1949, Detroit, MichiganAttempted Assassination of Victor Reuther:  Shotgun blast through window takes out eye and jaw of labor leader—0 killed, 1 wounded


March 26, 1968, Memphis, TennesseeMemphis Sanitation Strike:  At site of Martin Luther King’s April 4th assassination, local police respond to striking sanitation workers breaking windows by firing shotguns into crowds, killing 16-year-old boy—1 killed, X wounded


May 9, 1970, Pellston, MichiganDeath of Walter Reuther:  Labor leader dies in mysterious plane crash, uncannily similar to plane crash year and half earlier that he and brother Victor miraculously survive, strongly suggesting sabotage in both instances, but FBI refuses to release information they have on either crash, same FBI that just two years later is accused of being behind disappearance and presumed crash of plane carrying Congressman Hale Boggs after he accused FBI of tapping phones and adopting tactics of Soviet Union and Gestapo—6 killed, 0 wounded


June, 1973, Harlan County, KentuckyFilming Of “Harlan County, U.S.A.”:  Harking back to era of violence against workers, hired guards shoot indiscriminately into houses of striking miners during filming of documentary about union activity in isolated “Bloody” Harlan County (film released 1976)—1 killed, 0 wounded


November 9, 1974, Cranston, Rhode IslandDeath of Wilma Schesler:  Nurse on way to work deliberately drives her car though picket line of striking mental hospital workers—1 killed, 2 wounded  [Thank you, Professor Scott Molloy]


November 13, 1974, Oklahoma City, OklahomaDeath of Karen Silkwood:  Possibly an accident, but more likely not an accident, union activist driving alone to expose workplace safety violations to New York Times reporter is found dead in her car crashed head-on into culvert, her exposing documents missing, and unexplained rear-end damage on her new car—1 killed, 0 wounded


January-June, 1979, Imperial Valley, CaliforniaImperial Valley Lettuce Strike:  United Farm Workers union pickets under Caesar Chavez throw rocks at growers, guards, and strikebreakers, and several pickets are wounded by gunfire, one being killed, and another is hit by a truck—1 killed, 35 wounded


November 3, 1979, Greensboro, North CarolinaGreensboro Massacre:  The Communist Workers Party (CWP) failed to organize white textile workers, so instead turned their efforts to organizing black textile workers, which brought them into conflict with Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and American Nazi Party (ANP), and violence broke out when Klan and ANP members showed up at CWO rally against the Klan—5 killed, 5 wounded


January 21, 1986, Austin, Minnesota1985 Hormel Strike:  Governor sends national guard to protect strikebreakers after violence breaks out on picket line—0 killed, X wounded


August 6-7, 1988, New York City, New YorkTompkins Square Park Police Riot:  Police beat down homeless people, political activists, and innocent bystanders in effort to evict homeless population from park, resulting in more than one hundred filed complaints of police brutality—0 killed, 44 (another source said 38) wounded


May 24, 1990, Oakland, CaliforniaAttempted Assassination of Judi Bari:  Though attack itself is perhaps not really instance of class war, as man claiming responsibility said he acted to prevent abortions, nevertheless local police and FBI working on behalf of financial interests of lumber company, against whom subjects protested, falsely accuse victims of bomb attack as being themselves intended bombers, and, after trial, pay $4.4 million in damages to their posthumous estates—0 killed, 2 wounded


September 17, 1998, Headwaters Forest, CaliforniaDeath of David Chain:  Needing to repay loan debt after hostile takeover of lumber company, new management changes sustainable growth policy to clearcutting, and amid protests in which local police twist back protestors’ heads, separate their eyelids, and apply pepper spray directly onto their eyeballs with sponges, one officer laughing when asked whether he had any compassion, a lumber worker under pressure to increase production threatens protestors then fells tree that hits one of them—1 killed, 0 wounded


October, 2014, Conway, South CarolinaRescue of Christopher Smith:  Social Services removes mentally disabled black man from restaurant job where he was regularly beaten and held prisoner in company housing while earning $2482 a year for working 108 hours per week—0 killed, 1 wounded  [Thank you, Marcia Weeden]


October 31, 2015, Providence, Rhode IslandAttack On Fuerza Laboral:  Restaurant owner with baseball bat attacks picketers against his business protesting unpaid wages—0 killed, 2 wounded  [Thank you, Marcia Weeden]




Innocent Leaders Of The Workers Movement Martyred In America


1864 - William Walker

1887 - August Spies, Haymarket Five

1887 - Adolph Fischer, Haymarket Five

1887 - Albert Parsons, Haymarket Five

1919 - Fannie Sellins

1921 - Sid Hatfield

1917 - Frank Little

1914 - Louis Tikas

1915 - Joe Hill

1933 - Delfino Davila, Mexican Consulate, Pixley Cotton Strike

1929 - Ella Mae Wiggins


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